Among IL-17 families, IL-17A and IL-17F share amino acid sequence similarity and bind to IL-17R type A. IL-17 signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, but its role in the regulatory mechanism of extracellular matrix expression and its contribution to the phenotype of systemic sclerosis (SSc) both remain to be elucidated. This study revealed that IL-17A expression was significantly increased in the involved skin and sera of SSc patients, whereas the IL-17F levels did not increase. In contrast, the expression of IL-17R type A in SSc fibroblasts significantly decreased in comparison with that in normal fibroblasts, due to the intrinsic TGF-β1 activation in these cell types. Moreover, IL-17A, not IL-17F, reduced the protein expression of α1(I) collagen and connective tissue growth factor. miR-129-5p, one of the downregulated microRNAs in SSc fibroblasts, increased due to IL-17A and mediated the α1(I) collagen reduction. These results suggest that IL-17A signaling, not IL-17F, has an antifibrogenic effect via the upregulation of miR-129-5p and the downregulation of connective tissue growth factor and α1(I) collagen. IL-17A signaling is suppressed due to the downregulation of the receptor by the intrinsic activation of TGF-β1 in SSc fibroblasts, which may amplify the increased collagen accumulation and fibrosis characteristic of SSc. Increased IL-17A levels in the sera and involved skin of SSc may be due to negative feedback. Clarifying the novel regulatory mechanisms of fibrosis by the cytokine network consisting of TGF-β and IL-17A may lead to a new therapeutic approach for this disease.
BackgroundSenile hemangioma, so-called cherry angioma, is known as the most common vascular anomalies specifically seen in the aged skin. The pathogenesis of its abnormal angiogenesis is still unclear.Methodology/Principal FindingsIn this study, we found that senile hemangioma consisted of clusters of proliferated small vascular channels in upper dermis, indicating that this tumor is categorized as a vascular tumor. We then investigated the mechanism of endothelial proliferation in senile hemangioma, focusing on microRNA (miRNA). miRNA PCR array analysis revealed the mir-424 level in senile hemangioma was lower than in other vascular anomalies. Protein expression of MEK1 and cyclin E1, the predicted target genes of mir-424, was increased in senile hemangioma compared to normal skin or other anomalies, but their mRNA levels were not. The inhibition of mir-424 in normal human dermal microvascular ECs (HDMECs) using specific inhibitor in vitro resulted in the increase of protein expression of MEK1 or cyclin E1, while mRNA levels were not affected by the inhibitor. Specific inhibitor of mir-424 also induced the cell proliferation of HDMECs significantly, while the cell number was decreased by the transfection of siRNA for MEK1 or cyclin E1.Conclusions/SignificanceTaken together, decreased mir-424 expression and increased levels of MEK1 or cyclin E1 in senile hemangioma may cause abnormal cell proliferation in the tumor. Senile hemangioma may be the good model for cutaneous angiogenesis. Investigation of senile hemangioma and the regulatory mechanisms of angiogenesis by miRNA in the aged skin may lead to new treatments using miRNA by the transfection into senile hemangioma.
In this report, we developed the pressure probe electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry with internal electrode capillary (IEC-PPESI-MS) which enables high spatial-resolution cell sampling, precise postsampling manipulation, and high detection sensitivity. Using this technique, a comparative in situ single-cell metabolite profiling of stalk and glandular cells, the two adjacent cell types comprising a trichome unit in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.), were performed to clarify the extent of metabolic differentiation between two cell types as well as among different types of trichomes. Owing to high sensitivity of the system, less than a picoliter cell sap from a single stalk cell sufficiently yielded a number of peaks of amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, and flavonoids. The minimal cell sap removal from a stalk cell without severe disturbance of trichome structure enabled sequential analysis of adjacent glandular cell on the same trichome, which showed the presence of striking differences in metabolite compositions between two adjacent cell types. Comparison among different types of trichome also revealed significant variations in metabolite profiles, particularly in flavonoids and acyl sugars compositions. Some metabolites were found only in specific cell types or particular trichome types. Although extensive metabolomics analysis of glandular cells of tomato trichomes has been previously documented, this is the first report describing cell-to-cell variations in metabolite compositions of stalk and glandular cells as well as in different trichome types. Further application of this technique may provide new insights into distinct metabolism in plant cells displaying variations in shape, size, function and physicochemical properties.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are thought to have various functions other than RNA silencing. We tried to evaluate the expression of lncRNAs in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and determined whether lncRNAs controls collagen expression in dermal fibroblasts. lncRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. Protein and mRNA levels of collagen were analysed using immunoblotting and real-time PCR. We found TSIX, one of the lncRNAs, was overexpressed in SSc dermal fibroblasts both in vivo and in vitro, which was inhibited by the transfection of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 siRNA. TSIX siRNA reduced the mRNA expression of type I collagen in normal and SSc dermal fibroblasts, but not the levels of major disease-related cytokines. In addition, TSIX siRNA significantly reduced type I collagen mRNA stability, but not protein half-lives. Furthermore, we first investigated serum lncRNA levels in patients with SSc, and serum TSIX levels were significantly increased in SSc patients. TSIX is a new regulator of collagen expression which stabilizes the collagen mRNA. The upregulation of TSIX seen in SSc fibroblasts may result from activated endogenous TGF-β signalling and may play a role in the constitutive upregulation of collagen in these cells. Further studies on the regulatory mechanism of tissue fibrosis by lncRNAs in SSc skin lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis, new diagnostic methods by their serum levels and new therapeutic approaches using siRNAs.
This study revealed the cellular dynamics for heat-induced chalky formation and nitrogen-enhanced heat adaptive mechanism by conducting a newly developed on-site cell-specific analysis coupled with time-course analysis via microscopy.
IL-12 family cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, but their role in the regulation of extracellular matrix expression and its contribution to the phenotype of systemic sclerosis (SSc) remain to be elucidated. Among the IL-12 family members, IL-35 decreases type I collagen expression in cultured dermal fibroblasts. IL-35 consists of p35 and EBI3 subunits, and EBI3 alone could downregulate the protein and mRNA expression of type I or type III collagen in the presence or absence of TGF-β costimulation. We found that collagen mRNA stability was reduced by EBI3 via the induction of miR-4500. The IL-35 levels in the sera or on the surface of T cells were not altered in SSc patients, while EBI3 expression was decreased in the keratinocytes of the epidermis and regulatory T cells of the dermis in SSc skin compared with normal skin, which may induce collagen synthesis in SSc dermal fibroblasts. We also found that gp130, the EBI3 receptor, was expressed in both normal and SSc fibroblasts. Moreover, we revealed that EBI3 supplementation by injection into the skin improves mice skin fibrosis. Decreased EBI3 in SSc skin may contribute to an increase in collagen accumulation and skin fibrosis. Clarifying the mechanism regulating the extracellular matrix expression by EBI3 in SSc skin may lead to better understanding of this disease and new therapeutic strategies using ointment or microinjection of the subunit.
Background/Aims: Erythropoietin (EPO) possesses well-established hematopoietic properties as the primary stimulator of red blood cell formation by binding to its receptor (EPO-R). Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological roles of EPO in several non-hematopoietic tissues including kidney. Our aim was to further clarify the glomerular localization of EPO-R in normal kidney, as well as changes in its expression during glomerulogenesis. Methods:We analyzed EPO-R mRNA and protein expression in neonatal and adult mouse kidney by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. To confirm the precise localization and developmental changes of EPO-R expression in podocytes in mature and developing glomeruli, we examined co-expression with the podocyte markers WT-1 and synaptopodin. Results: In addition to tubular expression as reported recently, EPO-R expression was observed in podocytes as well as endocapillary cells in the glomeruli from adult mice. In newborn kidney, EPO-R mRNA and protein expression was first observed in developing podocytes in S-shaped bodies with expression subsequently increasing in glomeruli at the capillary-loop and maturing stages. Immunoelectron microscopy also demonstrated cytoplasmic expression of EPO-R that was prominent at the basal sides of podocytes in glomeruli at the late capillary-loop and maturing stage. Conclusion: EPO-R is expressed in developing and mature podocytes in mouse kidney, suggesting a possible role for EPO in podocyte biology.
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