We present a study of molecular outflows toward a sample of 69 luminous IRAS point sources. The sample is associated with dense molecular gas and has far-infrared luminosities ranging from 10 2 to 10 5 L , indicating these objects as regions likely forming high-mass stars. Mapping in the CO J ¼ 2 1 line shows that molecular outflows are ubiquitous in these regions. Most of the outflows have masses of tens of M . The typical dynamical timescale of the flow, without correcting for inclination of the flow axis, is a few times 10 4 yr. The typical energy in the outflows is 10 46 ergs, comparable to the turbulent energy in the core. Nearly half of the outflows show spatially resolved bipolar lobes. This indicates that low-mass young stars that coexist in the region are not responsible for the bipolar outflows observed. It is the more massive stars that drive the outflow. The large detection rate of outflows in the region favors an accretion process in the formation of massive stars. The maximum mass-loss rate in the wind is about 10 À4 M yr À1 . If these outflows are driven via accretion, the accretion rate should be as high as a few times 10 À4 M yr À1
We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations from the 2014 Long Baseline Campaign in dust continuum and spectral line emission from the HL Tau region. The continuum images at wavelengths of 2.9, 1.3, and 0.87 mm have unprecedented angular resolutions of 0″. 075 (10 AU) to 0″. 025 (3.5 AU), revealing an astonishing level of detail in the circumstellar disk surrounding the young solar analog HL Tau, with a pattern of bright and dark rings observed at all wavelengths. By fitting ellipses to the most distinct rings, we measure precise values for the disk inclination (46 .72 0 .05 ± • •) and position angle (138 .02 0 .07).
We present 12 CO(J=1→0) observations of the high-redshift quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) BR 1202-0725 (z = 4.69), PSS J2322+1944 (z = 4.12), and APM 08279+5255 (z = 3.91) using the NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and the MPIfR Effelsberg 100 m telescope. We detect, for the first time, the CO ground-level transition in BR 1202-0725. For PSS J2322+1944 and APM 08279+5255, our observations result in line fluxes that are consistent with previous NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) observations, but they reveal the full line profiles. We report a typical lensing-corrected velocity-integrated intrinsic 12 CO(J=1→0) line luminosity of L ′ CO = 5 × 10 10 K km s −1 pc 2 and a typical total H 2 mass of M (H 2 ) = 4 × 10 10 M ⊙ for the sources in our sample. The CO/FIR luminosity ratios of these high-z sources follow the same trend as seen for low-z galaxies, leading to a combined solution of log(L FIR ) = (1.39 ± 0.05) × log(L CO ) − 1.76. It has previously been suggested that the molecular gas reservoirs in some quasar host galaxies may exhibit luminous, extended 12 CO(J=1→0) components that are not observed in the higher-J CO transitions. Utilizing the line profiles and the total intensities of our observations and large velocity gradient (LVG) models based on previous results for higher-J CO transitions, we derive that emission from all CO transitions is described well by a single gas component where all molecular gas is concentrated in a compact nuclear region. Thus, our observations and models show no indication of a luminous extended, low surface brightness molecular gas component in any of the high-redshift QSOs in our sample. If such extended components exist, their contribution to the overall luminosity is limited to at most 30%.
The processes leading to the birth of low-mass stars such as our Sun have been well studied, but the formation of high-mass (> 8 x Sun's mass) stars has heretofore remained poorly understood. Recent observational studies suggest that high-mass stars may form in essentially the same way as low-mass stars, namely via an accretion process, instead of via merging of several low-mass (< 8 Msun) stars. However, there is as yet no conclusive evidence. Here, we report the discovery of a flattened disk-like structure observed at submillimeter wavelengths, centered on a massive 15 Msun protostar in the Cepheus-A region. The disk, with a radius of about 330 astronomical units (AU) and a mass of 1 to 8 Msun, is detected in dust continuum as well as in molecular line emission. Its perpendicular orientation to, and spatial coincidence with the central embedded powerful bipolar radio jet, provides the best evidence yet that massive stars form via disk accretion in direct analogy to the formation of low-mass stars
Using the Submillimeter Array (SMA), we have imaged the 1.3 mm continuum emission at the centers of the massive star-forming regions NGC 6334 I and I( N ). In both regions, the SMA observations resolve the emission into multiple millimeter sources, with most of the sources clustered into areas only 10,000 AU in diameter. Toward NGC 6334 I, we find four compact sources: the two brightest (I-SMA1 and I-SMA2) are associated with previously known ammonia cores; I-SMA3 coincides with the peak of the compact H ii region ( NGC 6334 F), and I-SMA4 is a newly discovered object. While I-SMA3 exhibits a mixture of free-free and dust emission, the rest of the objects are dust cores. Toward NGC 6334 I( N ), seven compact dust cores are found, one of which is associated with a faint centimeter source. With the exception of I-SMA3, none of the millimeter sources have infrared counterparts in Spitzer Space Telescope 3-8 m images. Using a simple physical model for the dust continuum emission, we estimate that the mass of the interstellar material toward each of these compact objects is in the range of 3-66 M . The total mass in the compact objects appears to be similar in I and I( N ). The small size of these groups of sources suggest that these objects are proto-Trapezia forming in the centers of clusters of low-to intermediate-mass stars.
A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.
In the past decade, our understanding of galaxy evolution has been revolutionized by the discovery that luminous, dusty starburst galaxies were 1,000 times more abundant in the early Universe than at present. It has, however, been difficult to measure the complete redshift distribution of these objects, especially at the highest redshifts (z > 4). Here we report a redshift survey at a wavelength of three millimetres, targeting carbon monoxide line emission from the star-forming molecular gas in the direction of extraordinarily bright millimetre-wave-selected sources. High-resolution imaging demonstrates that these sources are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. We detect spectral lines in 23 out of 26 sources and multiple lines in 12 of those 23 sources, from which we obtain robust, unambiguous redshifts. At least 10 of the sources are found to lie at z > 4, indicating that the fraction of dusty starburst galaxies at high redshifts is greater than previously thought. Models of lens geometries in the sample indicate that the background objects are ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, powered by extreme bursts of star formation.
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