Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the NRH (with values 13.37%,42.93%, 17.45% and13.42%, respectively) while corresponding lowest values of 12.14%, 34.26%, 12.27% and 12.41% were obtained in the 14 days samples. Crude protein (CP) was significantly highest (p<0.05) in the 7 days fermentation (12.37%) but lowest in the 21 days (7.94%). The nitrogen free extract (NFE) values were similar and higher (p<0.05) in the NRH (control), 7 and 21 days fermentation that is 42.93%, 40.37% and 39.53%, respectively. The calculated metabolizable energy (ME) was similar and higher (p<0.05) for the fermented native rice husk at 7, 14 and 21 days that is 2289.19, 2308.77 and 2328.59 kcal/kg, respectively. Dry matter (DM), ash, calcium and phosphorous values were not influenced (p<0.05) by the fungi treatment of the NRH. Essential amino acids (EAA) values viz; lysine (4.94 g/100g), valine (7.34 g/100g), threonine (4.81 g/100g), isoleucine (4.83 g/100g) and phenylalanine (5.59 g/100g) were higher (p<0.05) in the 14 days fermentation with p. ostreatus while others that are non-essential amino acids (NEAA) in this group include alanine (7.06 g/100g) and tyrosine (4.12 g/100g). Glycine (6.02 g/100g), serine (5.18 g/100g), proline (4.85 g/100g), leucine (7.44 g/100g), glutamate (14.54 g/100g) and arginine (8.51 g/100g) values were higher (p<0.05) in the 21 days while aspartate (8.70 g/100g), histidine (2.37 g/100g), methionine (2.69 g/100g), tyrosine (4.20 g/100g) and cystine (2.09 g/100g) were higher (p<0.05) in the 7 days treatment. All the amino acids with the exception of glycine, alanine and aspartate had lowest (p<0.05) values recorded in the native rice husk. The total amino acids (TAA), total essential amino acids (TEAA), total non-essential amino acids (TNEAA) were all significantly higher in the 7 days fermentation (95.43, 45.01 and 50.42, respectively) and the lowest values in the NRH. Percent EAA followed the same trend while %NEAA was highest in the NRH. Fermentation of native rice husk for 7 days improved its nutritive value and consequently increased its usage as a component of livestock feed.
The experiment assessed the proximate and amino acid compositions, metabolizable energy and antinutrient constituents of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) harvested separately in the months of May and September, respectively using standard laboratory methods. The crude protein (20.5±0.1%), crude fibre (18.8±0.01%) and ash (14±0.1%) significantly (p˂0.05) increased in TDLM for September cutting than that of May (18.05±0.1%, 11.17±0.3% and 13.01±0.1%, respectively). All the anti-nutrient factors (ANFs), namely, oxalate, phenols, phytin, phytin P, saponins and tannins except alkaloids and flavonoids were significantly (p˂0.05) affected by the cutting time of the plant leaf. The ANFs contents in May cutting were oxalate (1.88±0.1 mg/100 g), phenols (0.31±0.01 mg/100 g), phytin (77.3±0.1 mg/100 g), phytin P (21.8±0.1 mg/100 g), saponins (21.8±0.1 mg/100 g) and tannins (0.5±0.01 mg/100 g). The metabolisable energy (ME) for May cutting of TDLM was 2908.27 kcal/kg while that of September was 2565.18 kcal/kg. Glutamic acid had the highest value of 10.94±0.02 mg crude protein among the determined amino acids in TDLM whereas cystine was the lowest (0.94±0.01 mg crude protein for both May and September cuttings. TDLM is limiting in methionine with a chemical score of 30 in both cuttings. Proximate composition of TDLM was higher for September cutting than May and could be used as vegetable protein source.
Ideal protein concept was tested by evaluating the growth performance and nitrogen utilization of broiler birds (0-28 days). The most limiting essential amino acids (EAAs), L-Lysine, DL-Methionine, L-Tryptophan and L-Threonine were used in supplementing broiler diets in which crude protein levels were reduced across the diets. Crude protein (CP) levels varied from 23.0% in the control diet with the addition of the most limiting EAAs to other diets. Diet 6 had the lowest CP of 11.0%. Growth parameters and nitrogen retention were investigated and data obtained were analysed statistically using Minitab (Version 16). The feed intake reduced significantly (P<0.05) across the diets with the highest value of 58.68±0.03g/b/d obtained for birds on the control diet of 23.0% CP and the lowest FI value obtained for birds on 11.0% CP diet with EAAs supplementation. The average weight gain (WG) also had the highest value of 33.47±0.03g/b/d for birds on the conventional control diet. Birds Fasuyi et al.; JEAI, 18(1): 1-9, 2017; Article no.JEAI.36256 2 on the least CP inclusion of 11.0% (diet 6) had the lowest average WG of 13.35±0.87g/b/d. Expectedly, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) had the best and lowest value of 1.75±0.01 for birds on the conventional control diet and the lowest for birds on the 11.0% CP (diet 6) at 3.31±0.20. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) had the best and highest value of 3.23±0.06 for birds on the 14.0% low crude protein diet. The average nitrogen retention (NR) had the highest significant value of 0.78±0.02gN for birds on the 11.0% CP diet (diet 6). The lowest significantly different (P<0.05) AND value of 45.65±0.79% was obtained for birds on 11.0% low CP diet supplemented with EAAs. Birds on conventional control diet in which 23.0% CP was used with an animal protein source and birds on 20.0% CP with EAAs supplementation had the best similar FCR of 1.75±0.01and 1.90±0.02, respectively. Crude protein can be reduced by 3 percentage points from the conventional 23.0% (NRC 1994 recommendation) to 20.0% CP without any detrimental effects on the growth performance indices of broiler starter birds (1-28 days).Protein efficiency ratios were better for growing birds on EAAs supplementation. Original Research Article
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