The umbilical cord provides a rich source of primitive mesenchymal stem cells (human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs)), which have the potential for transplantation-based treatments of Parkinson's Disease (PD). Our pervious study indicated that adenovirus-associated virus-mediated intrastriatal delivery of human vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF 165) conferred molecular protection to the dopaminergic system. As both VEGF and HUMSCs displayed limited neuroprotection, in this study we investigated whether HUMSCs combined with VEGF expression could offer enhanced neuroprotection. HUMSCs were modified by adenovirus-mediated VEGF gene transfer, and subsequently transplanted into rotenone-lesioned striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats. As a result, HUMSCs differentiated into dopaminergic neuron-like cells on the basis of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (neuronal marker), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (astrocyte marker), nestin (neural stem cell marker) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (dopaminergic marker) expression. Further, VEGF expression significantly enhanced the dopaminergic differentiation of HUMSCs in vivo. HUMSC transplantation ameliorated apomorphine-evoked rotations and reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the lesioned substantia nigra (SNc), which was enhanced significantly by VEGF expression in HUMSCs. These findings present the suitability of HUMSC as a vector for gene therapy and suggest that stem cell engineering with VEGF may improve the transplantation strategy for the treatment of PD.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy is a type of adoptive cellular therapy by harvesting infiltrated lymphocytes from tumors, culturing and amplifying them in vitro and then infusing back to treat patients. Its diverse TCR clonality, superior tumor-homing ability, and low off-target toxicity endow TIL therapy unique advantages in treating solid tumors compared with other adoptive cellular therapies. Nevertheless, the successful application of TIL therapy currently is still limited to several types of tumors. Herein in this review, we summarize the fundamental work in the field of TIL therapy and the current landscape and advances of TIL clinical trials worldwide. Moreover, the limitations of the current TIL regimen have been discussed and the opportunities and challenges in the development of next-generation TIL are highlighted. Finally, the future directions of TIL therapy towards a broader clinical application have been proposed.
Bispecific antibodies (bsAb) that target two independent epitopes or antigens have been extensively explored in translational and clinical studies since they were first developed in the 1960s. Many bsAbs are being tested in clinical trials for treating a variety of diseases, mostly cancer. Here, we provide an overview of various types of bsAbs in clinical studies and discuss their targets, safety profiles, and efficacy. We also highlight the current challenges, potential solutions, and future directions of bsAb development for cancer treatment.
OBJECTIVE Reports on supratentorial extraventricular ependymoma (STE) are relatively rare. The object of this study was to analyze the clinical, radiological, and histological features and treatment outcomes of 14 patients with STE. METHODS Overall, 227 patients with ependymoma underwent surgical treatment in the authors' department between January 2010 and June 2015; 14 of these patients had STE. Data on clinical presentation, radiological studies, histopathological findings, surgical strategies, and treatment outcomes in these 14 cases were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS The patients consisted of 6 women and 8 men (sex ratio 0.75). Mean age at diagnosis was 24.5 ± 13.5 years (range 3-48 years). Tumors were predominantly located in the frontal and temporal lobes (5 and 4 cases, respectively). Typical radiological features were mild to moderate heterogeneous tumor enhancements on contrast-enhanced MRI. Other radiological features included well-circumscribed, "popcorn" enhancement and no distinct adjoining brain edema. Gross-total resection was achieved in 12 patients, while subtotal removal was performed in 2. Radiotherapy was administered in 7 patients after surgery. Seven tumors were classified as WHO Grade II and the other 7 were verified as WHO Grade III. The mean follow-up period was 22.6 months (range 8-39 months). There were 3 patients with recurrence, and 2 of these patients died. CONCLUSIONS Supratentorial extraventricular ependymoma has atypical clinical presentations, various radiological features, and heterogeneous histological forms; therefore, definitive diagnosis can be difficult. Anaplastic STE shows malignant biological behavior, a higher recurrence rate, and a relatively poor prognosis. Gross-total resection with or without postoperative radiotherapy is currently the optimal treatment for STE.
Based on spin-polarized DFT calculations, we have studied the interaction mechanism of recently synthesized blue phosphorene (BlueP) monolayers towards selected key volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone, ethanol and propanal. Our binding energy analysis shows that pristine BlueP weakly binds the VOCs and that this binding does not appreciably change the electronic properties of the monolayer -a prerequisite for any sensing material. However, mono, di, and tri-vacancy defects and Si/Ssubstitutional doping significantly enhance the binding energies with VOCs. Density of state (DOS) calculations show that upon adsorption of VOCs, mono-vacancy and Ssubstituted BlueP monolayers undergo a major change in electronic structure, which make them potential candidates for VOCs sensing materials. By contrast, binding of VOCs to di-and tri-vacancy and Si-substitution sites does alter the electronic structure of BlueP monolayers drastically, therefore, are not qualified for VOCs sensing applications.
BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) is postulated to inhibit or modulate transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling. Furthermore, strong upregulation of BAMBI expression following in vitro infection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lung tissue has been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated whether TGF-β/BAMBI pathway is associated with COPD. Blood samples were obtained from 27 healthy controls (HC), 24 healthy smokers (HS) and 29 COPD patients. Elevated Th17/Treg ratios, and increased levels of BAMBI protein and mRNA (in plasma and CD4+ T cells respectively), were observed in COPD compared with HC and HS. BAMBI expression was first observed on human CD4+ T cells, with a typical membrane-bound pattern. The enhanced plasma BAMBI levels in COPD positively correlated with the increased plasma TGF-β1 levels and Th17/Treg ratio. Together, an impaired TGF-β/BAMBI pathway may promote the inflammation leading to Th17/Treg imbalance, which is a new mechanism in smokers who develop COPD.
The imbalance of CD4 + Foxp3 + T cell subsets is reportedly involved in abnormal inflammatory immune responses in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the possible role of CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells in immune regulation in COPD remains to be investigated. In the current study, distribution and phenotypic characteristics of CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells from peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry; the origin, immune function and ultimate fate of CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells were further explored in vitro . It was observed that circulating CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells were significantly increased in stable COPD patients (SCOPD) and resembled central memory or effector memory T cells. Compared with peripheral CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T cells, peripheral CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells showed a lower expression of Foxp3, CTLA-4, HELIOS, and TIGIT, but a higher expression of CD127 and KI-67, suggesting that CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells lost the expression of Tregs-associated molecules following the reduction in CD25. Unexpectedly, our study found that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) decreased CD25 expression and played a critical role in the generation of CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells from CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T cells. Phenotypic analysis further revealed that both inducible and peripheral CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells exhibited the features of activated conventional T cells. Importantly, memory CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells facilitated the proliferation and differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into Th17 cells in the presence of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, and TGFβ1. Finally, a fraction of CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells, exhibiting instability and plasticity, were converted to Th17 cells when subjected to Th17 cell-polarizing condition. Taken together, we propose that TGFβ1 is responsible for the generation of CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells, and these cells functionally exert an auxiliary effect on Th17 cells generation and might perpetuate chronic inflammation in COPD.
BackgroundHuman mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene delivery is regarded as an effective treatment for glioblastoma (GBM). However, adverse-free target site homing of the delivery vehicles to the tumor microsatellite nests is challenging, leading to erroneously sustained released of this suicide protein into the normal brain parenchyma; therefore, limiting off-target cytotoxicity and controlled expression of the suicide inductor is a prerequisite for the safe use of therapeutic stem cells.MethodsUtilizing the intrinsic expression profile of GBM and its elevated expression of TGF-β relative to normal brain tissue, we sought to engineer human adipose-derived MSCs (hAMSC-SBE4-TRAIL) which augment the expression of TRAIL under the trigger of TGF-β signaling. We validated our therapeutic technology in a series of functional in vitro and in vivo assays using primary patient-derived GBM models.ResultsOur current findings show that these biologic delivery vehicles have high tumor tropism efficacy and expression TRAIL gene under the trigger of TGF-β-secreting GBMs, as well as avoid unspecific TRAIL secretion into normal brain tissue. hAMSC-SBE4-TRAIL inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in experimental GBMs both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, our improved platform of engineered MSCs significantly decreased the tumor volume and prolonged survival time in a murine model of GBM.ConclusionsOur results on the controlled release of suicide inductor TRAIL by exploiting an endogenous tumor signaling pathway demonstrate a significant improvement for the clinical utility of stem cell-mediated gene delivery to treat brain cancers. Harvesting immune-compatible MSCs from patients’ fat by minimally invasive procedures further highlights the clinical potential of this approach in the vision of applicability in a personalized manner. The hAMSC-SBE4-TRAIL exhibit great curative efficacy and are a promising cell-based treatment option for GBM to be validated in clinical exploration.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s13287-019-1194-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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