This analysis aims to generate landslide susceptibility maps (LSMs) using various machine learning methods, namely random forest (RF), alternative decision tree (ADTree) and Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Function (FLDA). The results of the FLDA, RF and ADTree models were compared with regard to their applicability for creating an LSM of the Gallicash river watershed in the northern part of Iran close to the Caspian Sea. A landslide inventory map was created using GPS points obtained in a field analysis, high-resolution satellite images, topographic maps and historical records. A total of 249 landslide sites have been identified to date and were used in this study to model and validate the LSMs of the study region. Of the 249 landslide locations, 70% were used as training data and 30% for the validation of the resulting LSMs. Sixteen factors related to topographical, hydrological, soil type, geological and environmental conditions were used and a multi-collinearity test of the landslide conditioning factors (LCFs) was performed. Using the natural break method (NBM) in a geographic information system (GIS), the LSMs generated by the RF, FLDA, and ADTree models were categorized into five classes, namely very low, low, medium, high and very high landslide susceptibility (LS) zones. The very high susceptibility zones cover 15.37% (ADTree), 16.10% (FLDA) and 11.36% (RF) of the total catchment area. The results of the different models (FLDA, RF, and ADTree) were explained and compared using the area under receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve, seed cell area index (SCAI), efficiency and true skill statistic (TSS). The accuracy of models was calculated considering both the training and validation data. The results revealed that the AUROC success rates are 0.89 (ADTree), 0.92 (FLDA) and 0.97 (RF) and predication rates are 0.82 (ADTree), 0.79 (FLDA) and 0.98 (RF), which justifies the approach and indicates a reasonably good landslide prediction. The results of the SCAI, efficiency and TSS methods showed that all models have an excellent modeling capability. In a comparison of the models, the RF model outperforms the boosted regression tree (BRT) and ADTree models. The results of the landslide susceptibility modeling could be useful for land-use planning and decision-makers, for managing and controlling the current and future landslides, as well as for the protection of society and the ecosystem.
Landslides are among the most harmful natural hazards for human beings. This study aims to delineate landslide hazard zones in the Darjeeling and Kalimpong districts of West Bengal, India using a novel ensemble approach combining the weight-of-evidence (WofE) and support vector machine (SVM) techniques with remote sensing datasets and geographic information systems (GIS). The study area currently faces severe landslide problems, causing fatalities and losses of property. In the present study, the landslide inventory database was prepared using Google Earth imagery, and a field investigation carried out with a global positioning system (GPS). Of the 326 landslides in the inventory, 98 landslides (30%) were used for validation, and 228 landslides (70%) were used for modeling purposes. The landslide conditioning factors of elevation, rainfall, slope, aspect, geomorphology, geology, soil texture, land use/land cover (LULC), normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI), topographic wetness index (TWI), sediment transportation index (STI), stream power index (SPI), and seismic zone maps were used as independent variables in the modeling process. The weight-of-evidence and SVM techniques were ensembled and used to prepare landslide susceptibility maps (LSMs) with the help of remote sensing (RS) data and geographical information systems (GIS). The landslide susceptibility maps (LSMs) were then classified into four classes; namely, low, medium, high, and very high susceptibility to landslide occurrence, using the natural breaks classification methods in the GIS environment. The very high susceptibility zones produced by these ensemble models cover an area of 630 km2 (WofE& RBF-SVM), 474 km2 (WofE& Linear-SVM), 501km2 (WofE& Polynomial-SVM), and 498 km2 (WofE& Sigmoid-SVM), respectively, of a total area of 3914 km2. The results of our study were validated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and quality sum (Qs) methods. The area under the curve (AUC) values of the ensemble WofE& RBF-SVM, WofE & Linear-SVM, WofE & Polynomial-SVM, and WofE & Sigmoid-SVM models are 87%, 90%, 88%, and 85%, respectively, which indicates they are very good models for identifying landslide hazard zones. As per the results of both validation methods, the WofE & Linear-SVM model is more accurate than the other ensemble models. The results obtained from this study using our new ensemble methods can provide proper and significant information to decision-makers and policy planners in the landslide-prone areas of these districts.
The deadly COVID-19 virus has caused a global pandemic health emergency. This COVID-19 has spread its arms to 200 countries globally and the megacities of the world were particularly affected with a large number of infections and deaths, which is still increasing day by day. On the other hand, the outbreak of COVID-19 has greatly impacted the global environment to regain its health. This study takes four megacities (Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Chennai) of India for a comprehensive assessment of the dynamicity of environmental quality resulting from the COVID-19 induced lockdown situation. An environmental quality index was formulated using remotely sensed biophysical parameters like Particulate Matters PM10 concentration, Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Different Moisture Index (NDMI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). Fuzzy-AHP, which is a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making process, has been utilized to derive the weight of the indicators and aggregation. The results showing that COVID-19 induced lockdown in the form of restrictions on human and vehicular movements and decreasing economic activities has improved the overall quality of the environment in the selected Indian cities for a short time span. Overall, the results indicate that lockdown is not only capable of controlling COVID-19 spread, but also helpful in minimizing environmental degradation. The findings of this study can be utilized for assessing and analyzing the impacts of COVID-19 induced lockdown situation on the overall environmental quality of other megacities of the world.
Landslide is an important geological hazard in the large extent of geo-environment, damaging the human lives and properties. The present work, intends to identify the landslide susceptibility zones for Darjeeling, India, using the ensembles of important knowledge driven statistical technique i.e. fuzzy logic with Landslide Numerical Risk Factor (LNRF) and Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). In the study area, 326 landslides have been identified and a landslide inventory map has been prepared based on these landslides. The landslide inventory map has considered as the dependent factor and the geo-environmental factors like rainfall, slope, aspect, altitude, geology, soil texture, distance from river, lineament and road, land use/ land cover, NDVI and TWI have been considered as independent factors. Landslide susceptibility maps were prepared based on the Fuzzy-Landslide Numerical Risk Factor (LNRF) and Fuzzy-analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods in a GIS environment. According to the results of LNRF and AHP based fuzzy logic 34 and 22% areas are highly susceptible to landslide in this district. The landslide maps of both models have been validated through ROC curve and RMSE. The areas under curves are 91% (for Fuzzy-LNRF) and 90% (for Fuzzy-AHP) and RMSE values of these models are 0.18 and 0.14 which are indicating the good accuracy of both models in the identification of landslide susceptibility zones. Moreover, the Fuzzy-LNRF model is promising and sufficient to be advised as a method to prepare landslide susceptibility map at regional scale.
Gully erosion is a form of natural disaster and one of the land loss mechanisms causing severe problems worldwide. This study aims to delineate the areas with the most severe gully erosion susceptibility (GES) using the machine learning techniques Random Forest (RF), Gradient Boosted Regression Tree (GBRT), Naïve Bayes Tree (NBT), and Tree Ensemble (TE). The gully inventory map (GIM) consists of 120 gullies. Of the 120 gullies, 84 gullies (70%) were used for training and 36 gullies (30%) were used to validate the models. Fourteen gully conditioning factors (GCFs) were used for GES modeling and the relationships between the GCFs and gully erosion was assessed using the weight-of-evidence (WofE) model. The GES maps were prepared using RF, GBRT, NBT, and TE and were validated using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, the seed cell area index (SCAI) and five statistical measures including precision (PPV), false discovery rate (FDR), accuracy, mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean squared error (RMSE). Nearly 7% of the basin has high to very high susceptibility for gully erosion. Validation results proved the excellent ability of these models to predict the GES. Of the analyzed models, the RF (AUROC = 0.96, PPV = 1.00, FDR = 0.00, accuracy = 0.87, MAE = 0.11, RMSE = 0.19 for validation dataset) is accurate enough for modeling and better suited for GES modeling than the other models. Therefore, the RF model can be used to model the GES areas not only in this river basin but also in other areas with the same geo-environmental conditions.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.