Fifth-generation (5G) cellular networks are being developed to meet the ever-growing data traffic across mobile devices and their applications. The core of 5G cellular networks is leveraging wider and higher frequencies available at millimeter wave frequency (mmWave) bands, thus providing very high data rates for mobile devices. Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) is an essential technology for overcoming the high propagation loss at mmWave communications. In non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), multiple cellular user equipments (CUEs) communicate over the same time-frequency resources using a multiplexed power domain. In device-to-device (D2D) communications, two D2D user equipments (DUEs) communicate without passing through the base station. In the underlaying scenario, DUEs reuse the frequency resources allocated to CUEs for spectrum utilization but DUEs cause interferences for cellular and D2D communications. Integrating D2D communications with other 5G technologies has great potential for spectral efficiency improvement. Unfortunately, interference management and resource allocation are becoming increasingly challenging due to aggressive frequency reuse. In this paper, D2D communications at mmWave underlaying MIMO-NOMA cellular network system model is developed. Consequently, a novel resource allocation for D2D communications underlaying MIMO-NOMA cellular network is proposed. A resource allocation optimization problem is formulated for spectral efficiency maximization. To solve this NP-hard problem, the problem is decomposed into three subproblems: interference-aware graph-based user clustering, MIMO-NOMA beamforming design, and optimized power allocation based on particle swarm optimization. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm for D2D communications at mmWave underlaying MIMO-NOMA cellular network delivers a greater spectral efficiency compared to the conventional D2D communications that operate underlay MIMO-orthogonal multiple access cellular networks.
Concept drift is a main security issue that has to be resolved since it presents a significant barrier to the deployment of machine learning (ML) models. Due to attackers' (and/or benign equivalents') dynamic behavior changes, testing data distribution frequently diverges from original training data over time, resulting in substantial model failures. Due to their dispersed and dynamic nature, distributed denial-of-service attacks pose a danger to cybersecurity, resulting in attacks with serious consequences for users and businesses. This paper proposes a novel design for concept drift analysis and detection of malware attacks like Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) in the network. The goal of this architecture combination is to accurately represent data and create an effective cyber security prediction agent. The intrusion detection system and concept drift of the network has been analyzed using secure adaptive windowing with website data authentication protocol (SAW_WDA). The network has been analyzed by authentication protocol to avoid malware attacks. The data of network users will be collected and classified using multilayer perceptron gradient decision tree (MLPGDT) classifiers. Based on the classification output, the decision for the detection of attackers and authorized users will be identified. The experimental results show output based on intrusion detection and concept drift analysis systems in terms of throughput, end-end delay, network security, network concept drift, and results based on classification with regard to accuracy, memory, and precision and F-1 score.
In this paper, a framework for simultaneous tracking and recognizing drone targets using a low-cost and small-sized millimeter-wave radar is presented. The radar collects the reflected signals of multiple targets in the field of view including drone and non-drone targets. The analysis of the received signals allows multiple targets to be distinguished because of the different reflection patterns. The proposed framework consists of four processes including signal processing, cloud points clustering, target tracking, and target recognition. Signal processing translates the raw signals into spare cloud points. These points are merged into several clusters, each representing a single target. Target tracking estimates the new locations of each detected target. A novel convolutional neural network model is developed for drone and/or non-drone targets feature extraction and recognition. For performance evaluation, a dataset collected with an IWR6843ISK mmWave sensor by Texas Instruments is used for training and testing the convolutional neural network. The proposed recognition model achieves an accuracy of 98.4% for one target and 98.1% for two targets.
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