Abstract-Airspeed sensor faults are common causes for incidents with unmanned aerial vehicles with pitot tube clogging or icing being the most common causes. Timely diagnosis of such faults or other artifacts in signals from airspeed sensing systems could potentially prevent crashes. This paper employs parameter adaptive estimators to provide analytical redundancies and a dedicated diagnosis scheme is designed. Robustness is investigated on sets of flight data to estimate distributions of test statistics. The result is robust diagnosis with adequate balance between false alarm rate and fault detectability.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles need a large degree of tolerance to faults. One of the most important steps towards this is the ability to detect and isolate faults in sensors and actuators in real time and make remedial actions to avoid that faults develop to failure. This paper analyses the possibilities of detecting faults in the pitot tube of a small unmanned aerial vehicle, a fault that easily causes a crash if not diagnosed and handled in time. Using as redundant information the velocity measured from an onboard GPS receiver, the air-speed estimated from engine throttle and the pitot tube based airspeed, the paper analyses the properties of residuals. A dedicated change detector is suggested that works on pre-whitened residuals and a generalised likelihood ratio test is derived for a Cauchy probability density, which the residuals are observed to have. A detection scheme is obtained using a threshold that provides desired quantities of false alarm and detection probabilities. Fault detectors are build based on raw residual data and on a whitened edition of these. The two detectors are compared against recorded telemetry data of an actual event where a pitot tube defect occurred. c 2010 IFAC
In this paper, the signal subspace approach for non-parametric speech enhancement is considered. Several algorithms have been proposed in the literature but only partly analyzed. Here, the different algorithms are compared, and the emphasis is put onto the limiting factors and practical behavior of the estimators. Experimental results show that the signal subspace approach may lead to a significant enhancement of the signal to noise ratio of the output signal.
This study compares spectral bands for object detection at sea using a convolutional neural network (CNN). Specifically, images in three spectral bands are targeted: long wavelength infrared (LWIR), near-infrared (NIR) and visible range. Using a calibrated camera setup, a large set of images for each of the spectral bands are captured with the same field of view. The image sets are then used to train and validate a CNN for object detection to evaluate the performance in the different bands. Prediction performance is employed as a quality assessment and is put in a navigational perspective. The result is a quantitative evaluation that reveals the strengths and weaknesses of using different spectral bands individually or in combination for autonomous navigation at sea. The analysis covers two object classes of particular importance for safe navigation.
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