With rates of endometrial cancer survival increasing, there is growing interest about lifestyle behaviours that could improve quality of life and reduce the risk for chronic diseases. The current study aimed to explore the attitudes, challenges, and needs of endometrial cancer survivors regarding diet and physical activity. Sixteen UK-based endometrial cancer survivors participated in two focus groups (n=5, n=3) or individual telephone interviews (n=8), using a semi-structured interview guide. Data were collectively analysed by two researchers until consensus was reached on a coding structure. Data analysis proceeded until themes were identified. Participants were within five years post cancer treatment with median age and BMI of 57 years and 25.83kg/m 2 , respectively. Three themes were identified: i) defining a healthy lifestyle, ii) factors influencing diet and physical activity, and iii) needing to search for information. Results suggest interventions should incorporate recommendations on managing late-treatment effects, and behaviour change techniques for cognitive, practical, and social barriers to healthy lifestyle changes. Health care professionals are in a vital position to provide or introduce endometrial cancer survivors to in-person behaviour change interventions at the early post-treatment period.
The interrelationship of HIV infection, dental caries and mucosal immune responses remains controversial. In our study population of 40 HIV-infected and 40 healthy control children (ages 2-5 years) there was a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries in HIV-infected children (P<0.05). The extent of caries correlated with the severity of HIV disease. To determine whether the immunosuppression that ensues after HIV infection could contribute to the increased caries prevalence, the concentrations of total IgA and IgA specific to cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Lactobacillus acidophilus) were determined in whole saliva by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of the same bacteria were also quantified in saliva using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. A significantly increased level of total salivary IgA was found in the HIV-positive population (P < 0.05), but there were comparable titers of specific IgA to cariogenic bacteria in HIV-positive and healthy controls. The microbiological assessment also demonstrated similar levels of cariogenic microorganisms in both groups. We conclude that HIV-positive children appear to maintain the capacity to mount a mucosal immune response to cariogenic microorganisms, at least until late stages of disease.
ObjectivesAdoption of healthy lifestyle behaviours has shown promising effectiveness in reducing the high morbidity burden of cancer survivors. Health professionals (HPs) are well suited to provide lifestyle advice but few survivors report receiving guidance from them. This study aimed to explore HPs’ perspective of lifestyle advice (on healthy eating, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol) for cancer survivors.DesignIn-depth semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted by telephone or face to face. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.Setting and participantsTwenty-one UK HPs working in secondary care with breast, prostate or colorectal cancer survivors were interviewed.ResultsThe overarching theme was that HPs’ desire to provide lifestyle advice was not necessarily matched by knowledge and action. Three main themes were identified: (1) survivorship-centred barriers to provision, (2) HP-centred barriers to provision, and (3) optimal delivery of lifestyle advice. Results suggested that HPs’ perceptions of survivors’ current status of practising health behaviours, their perceived socioeconomic barriers and ability to practise health behaviours, and HPs’ fear for potential loss of connection with the patient influenced provision of lifestyle advice. Further factors included HPs’ knowledge of healthy lifestyle guidelines, feeling that they were not the ‘right person’ to provide advice, and lack of time and resources. HPs stressed that the optimal delivery of lifestyle advice should (1) be tailored to the individual and delivered throughout the cancer journey, (2) be focused on small and achievable changes framed as part of their treatment regimen and (3) be cost-effective for wide-scale implementation.ConclusionsIncorporation of the identified barriers when developing HP training programmes and lifestyle interventions could increase the probability of successful behavioural change, and thus improve outcomes for cancer survivors.
BackgroundAbout 80% of endometrial cancer survivors (ECS) are overweight or obese and have sedentary behaviors. Lifestyle behavior interventions are promising for improving dietary and physical activity behaviors, but the constructs associated with their effectiveness are often inadequately reported. The aim of this study was to systematically adapt an evidence-based behavior change program to improve healthy lifestyle behaviors in ECS.MethodsFollowing a review of the literature, focus groups and interviews were conducted with ECS (n = 16). An intervention mapping protocol was used for the program adaptation, which consisted of six steps: a needs assessment, formulation of matrices of change objectives, selection of theoretical methods and practical applications, program production, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning. Social Cognitive Theory and Control Theory guided the adaptation of the intervention.ResultsThe process consisted of eight 90-min group sessions focusing on shaping outcome expectations, knowledge, self-efficacy, and goals about healthy eating and physical activity. The adapted performance objectives included establishment of regular eating, balanced diet, and portion sizes, reduction in sedentary behaviors, increase in lifestyle and organized activities, formulation of a discrepancy-reducing feedback loop for all above behaviors, and trigger management. Information on managing fatigue and bowel issues unique to ECS were added.ConclusionsSystematic intervention mapping provided a framework to design a cancer survivor-centered lifestyle intervention. ECS welcomed the intervention and provided essential feedback for its adaptation. The program has been evaluated through a randomized controlled trial.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12889-018-5329-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Documenting how diversity patterns vary at fine‐ and broad scales may help answer many questions in theoretical and applied ecology. However, studies tend to compare diversity patterns at the same scale and within the same taxonomic group, which limits the applicability and generality of the results. Here, we have investigated whether vegetation‐dwelling arthropods from different trophic ranks and with distinct life histories (i.e., ants, caterpillars, cockroaches, and spiders) have different beta‐diversity patterns at multiple scales. Specifically, we compared their beta diversity across architecturally distinct plant species (fine‐scale process) and a latitudinal gradient of sites (broad‐scale process) along 2040 km of coastal restinga vegetation in the Neotropics. Over 50 percent of the compositional changes (β‐diversity) in ants, caterpillars, and spiders and 41 percent of those in cockroaches were explained by plant identity within each site. Even groups that do not feed on plant tissues, such as omnivores and predators, were strongly affected by plant identity. Fine‐scale variation was more important than large‐scale processes for all studied groups. Performing a cross‐scale comparison of diversity patterns of groups with distinct life histories helps elucidate how processes that act at regional scales, such as dispersal, interact with local processes to assemble arthropod communities.
Este artigo focaliza as trajetórias dos professores catedráticos Vicente Tapajós (1917-1998) e Evanildo Bechara (1928), referenciados pelas ex-alunas como “notáveis” e que compuseram o corpo docente do Instituto de Educação em uma época identificada como o período áureo da instituição. Resultados dessa investigação apontam para a hierarquização do corpo docente do Instituto a partir de critérios que contemplam o nível de formação desses professores, a forma de acesso à carreira, a valorização social das disciplinas ministradas, as redes de sociabilidade nas quais estavam envolvidos, além do volume e alcance das obras didáticas produzidas.
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