The genus Xanthomonas is a diverse and economically important group of bacterial phytopathogens, belonging to the gamma-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker, which affects most commercial citrus cultivars, resulting in significant losses worldwide. Symptoms include canker lesions, leading to abscission of fruit and leaves and general tree decline. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) causes black rot, which affects crucifers such as Brassica and Arabidopsis. Symptoms include marginal leaf chlorosis and darkening of vascular tissue, accompanied by extensive wilting and necrosis. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is grown commercially to produce the exopolysaccharide xanthan gum, which is used as a viscosifying and stabilizing agent in many industries. Here we report and compare the complete genome sequences of Xac and Xcc. Their distinct disease phenotypes and host ranges belie a high degree of similarity at the genomic level. More than 80% of genes are shared, and gene order is conserved along most of their respective chromosomes. We identified several groups of strain-specific genes, and on the basis of these groups we propose mechanisms that may explain the differing host specificities and pathogenic processes.
Xylella fastidiosa is a fastidious, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a range of economically important plant diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequence of X. fastidiosa clone 9a5c, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis--a serious disease of orange trees. The genome comprises a 52.7% GC-rich 2,679,305-base-pair (bp) circular chromosome and two plasmids of 51,158 bp and 1,285 bp. We can assign putative functions to 47% of the 2,904 predicted coding regions. Efficient metabolic functions are predicted, with sugars as the principal energy and carbon source, supporting existence in the nutrient-poor xylem sap. The mechanisms associated with pathogenicity and virulence involve toxins, antibiotics and ion sequestration systems, as well as bacterium-bacterium and bacterium-host interactions mediated by a range of proteins. Orthologues of some of these proteins have only been identified in animal and human pathogens; their presence in X. fastidiosa indicates that the molecular basis for bacterial pathogenicity is both conserved and independent of host. At least 83 genes are bacteriophage-derived and include virulence-associated genes from other bacteria, providing direct evidence of phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.
Leptospira species colonize a significant proportion of rodent populations worldwide and produce life-threatening infections in accidental hosts, including humans. Complete genome sequencing of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni and comparative analysis with the available Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai genome reveal that despite overall genetic similarity there are significant structural differences, including a large chromosomal inversion and extensive variation in the number and distribution of insertion sequence elements. Genome sequence analysis elucidates many of the novel aspects of leptospiral physiology relating to energy metabolism, oxygen tolerance, two-component signal transduction systems, and mechanisms of pathogenesis. A broad array of transcriptional regulation proteins and two new families of afimbrial adhesins which contribute to host tissue colonization in the early steps of infection were identified. Differences in genes involved in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide O side chains between the Copenhageni and Lai serovars were identified, offering an important starting point for the elucidation of the organism's complex polysaccharide surface antigens. Differences in adhesins and in lipopolysaccharide might be associated with the adaptation of serovars Copenhageni and Lai to different animal hosts. Hundreds of genes encoding surface-exposed lipoproteins and transmembrane outer membrane proteins were identified as candidates for development of vaccines for the prevention of leptospirosis.
The Amazon rainforest is the Earth’s largest reservoir of plant and animal diversity, and it has been subjected to especially high rates of land use change, primarily to cattle pasture. This conversion has had a strongly negative effect on biological diversity, reducing the number of plant and animal species and homogenizing communities. We report here that microbial biodiversity also responds strongly to conversion of the Amazon rainforest, but in a manner different from plants and animals. Local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of soil bacteria increases after conversion, but communities become more similar across space. This homogenization is driven by the loss of forest soil bacteria with restricted ranges (endemics) and results in a net loss of diversity. This study shows homogenization of microbial communities in response to human activities. Given that soil microbes represent the majority of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems and are intimately involved in ecosystem functions, we argue that microbial biodiversity loss should be taken into account when assessing the impact of land use change in tropical forests.
This study addressed the selection of the rhizospheric microbial community from the bulk soil reservoir under agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils. We used a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic and functional diversities of microbial communities in the bulk soil and in the rhizosphere of soybean plants and tested the validity of neutral and niche theories to explain the rhizosphere community assembly processes. Our results showed a clear selection at both taxonomic and functional levels operating in the assembly of the soybean rhizosphere community. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the rhizosphere community is a subset of the bulk soil community. Species abundance in rhizosphere fits the log-normal distribution model, which is an indicator of the occurrence of niche-based processes. In addition, the data indicate that the rhizosphere community is selected based on functional cores related to the metabolisms of nitrogen, iron, phosphorus and potassium, which are related to benefits to the plant, such as growth promotion and nutrition. The network analysis including bacterial groups and functions was less complex in rhizosphere, suggesting the specialization of some specific metabolic pathways. We conclude that the assembly of the microbial community in the rhizosphere is based on niche-based processes as a result of the selection power of the plant and other environmental factors.
Three RFLP maps, as well as several RAPD maps have been developed in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In order to align these maps, a core linkage map was established in the recombinant inbred population BAT93;Jalo EEP558 (BJ). This map has a total length of 1226 cM and comprises 563 markers, including some 120 RFLP and 430 RAPD markers, in addition to a few isozyme and phenotypic marker loci. Among the RFLPs mapped were markers from the University of California, Davis (established in the F of the BJ cross), University of Paris-Orsay, and University of Florida maps. These shared markers allowed us to Communicated by P. M. A. Tigerstedt
Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-dwelling, insect-transmitted, gamma-proteobacterium that causes diseases in many plants, including grapevine, citrus, periwinkle, almond, oleander, and coffee. X. fastidiosa has an unusually broad host range, has an extensive geographical distribution throughout the American continent, and induces diverse disease phenotypes. Previous molecular analyses indicated three distinct groups of X. fastidiosa isolates that were expected to be genetically divergent. Here we report the genome sequence of X. fastidiosa (Temecula strain), isolated from a naturally infected grapevine with Pierce's disease (PD) in a wine-grapegrowing region of California. Comparative analyses with a previously sequenced X. fastidiosa strain responsible for citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) revealed that 98% of the PD X. fastidiosa Temecula genes are shared with the CVC X. fastidiosa strain 9a5c genes. Furthermore, the average amino acid identity of the open reading frames in the strains is 95.7%. Genomic differences are limited to phage-associated chromosomal rearrangements and deletions that also account for the strain-specific genes present in each genome. Genomic islands, one in each genome, were identified, and their presence in other X. fastidiosa strains was analyzed. We conclude that these two organisms have identical metabolic functions and are likely to use a common set of genes in plant colonization and pathogenesis, permitting convergence of functional genomic strategies.Different microorganisms are able to survive in and to colonize plant water-conductive vessels (xylem). The result of this association is either beneficial or detrimental to the plant host.Of the latter, an example is the association of Xylella fastidiosa (38) with diverse plant hosts. X. fastidiosa is a fastidious, insecttransmitted, xylem-inhabiting bacterium known to cause several economically important diseases of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants (14,17,29). These diseases include Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), which have rather distinct symptoms and geographical distributions.PD, caused by certain strains of X. fastidiosa, is characterized by wilted, shriveled, raisin-like fruit and scorched leaves that detach, leaving bare petioles attached to the canes (37). The bark of affected canes may lignify or mature irregularly, leaving
The rhizosphere microbiome has a key role in plant growth and health, providing a first line of defense against root infections by soil-borne pathogens. Here, we investigated the composition and metabolic potential of the rhizobacterial community of different common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars with variable levels of resistance to the fungal root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fox). For the different bean cultivars grown in two soils with contrasting physicochemical properties and microbial diversity, rhizobacterial abundance was positively correlated with Fox resistance. Pseudomonadaceae, bacillaceae, solibacteraceae and cytophagaceae were more abundant in the rhizosphere of the Fox-resistant cultivar. Network analyses showed a modular topology of the rhizosphere microbiome of the Fox-resistant cultivar, suggesting a more complex and highly connected bacterial community than in the rhizosphere of the Fox-susceptible cultivar. Metagenome analyses further revealed that specific functional traits such as protein secretion systems and biosynthesis genes of antifungal phenazines and rhamnolipids were more abundant in the rhizobacterial community of the Fox-resistant cultivar. Our findings suggest that breeding for Fox resistance in common bean may have co-selected for other unknown plant traits that support a higher abundance of specific beneficial bacterial families in the rhizosphere with functional traits that reinforce the first line of defense.
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