The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 9.3 million people and has caused over 0.47 million deaths worldwide as of June 24, 2020. Chest imaging techniques including computed tomography and X-ray scans are indispensable tools in COVID-19 diagnosis and its management. The strong infectiousness of this disease brings a huge burden for radiologists. In order to overcome the difficulty and improve accuracy of the diagnosis, artificial intelligence (AI)-based imaging analysis methods are explored. This survey focuses on the development of chest imaging analysis methods based on AI for COVID-19 in the past few months. Specially, we first recall imaging analysis methods of two typical viral pneumonias, which can provide a reference for studying the disease on chest images. We further describe the development of AI-assisted diagnosis and assessment for the disease, and find that AI techniques have great advantage in this application.
In order to investigate the light-induced-degradation (LID) and regeneration of industrial PERC solar cells made from different positions of silicon wafers in a silicon ingot, five groups of silicon wafers were cut from a commercial solar-grade boron-doped Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) ingot from top to bottom with a certain distance and made into PERC solar cells by using the standard industrial process after measuring lifetimes of minority carriers and concentrations of boron, oxygen, carbon, and transition metal impurities. Then, the changes of their I - V characteristic parameters (efficiency η , open-circuit voltage V oc , short-circuit current I sc , and fill factor FF ) with time were in situ measured by using a solar cell I - V tester during the 1st LID (45°C, 1 sun, 12 h), regeneration (100°C, 1 sun, 24 h), and 2nd LID (45°C, 1 sun, 12 h). The results show that the LID and regeneration of the PERC solar cells are caused by the transition of B-O defects playing a dominant role together with the dissociation of Fe-B pairs playing a secondary role. The decay of η during the 1st LID is caused by the degradation of V oc , I sc , and FF , while the increase of η during the regeneration is mainly contributed by V oc and FF , and the decay of η during the 2nd LID is mainly induced by the degradation of I sc . After regeneration, the decay rate of η reduces from 4.43%–5.56% (relative) during the 1st LID to 0.33%–1.75% (relative) during the 2nd LID.
In order to study the effect of device structures and silicon wafer positions on light-induced degradation (LID) and regeneration, five groups of industrial PERC and Al-BSF solar cells were fabricated by using silicon wafers from different positions of a B-doped Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) ingot. Then, the cells were subjected to a dark annealing (200 °C, 30 min), the first LID (45 °C, 1 sun, 12 h), an electrical injection regeneration (175 °C, 18 A, 30 min) and the second LID (45 °C, 1 sun, 12 h) in order, and the variations of performance of the cells with processing time were measured. It was found that after the electrical injection regeneration, the efficiency losses of PERC cells decreased from 1.28–1.76%absolute in the first LID to 0.09–0.16%absolute in the second LID, while those of Al-BSF cells decreased from 0.3–0.66%absolute in the first LID to 0 in the second LID. The efficiency losses of PERC cells during the first LID were caused by the co-action of B-O-defect-induced LID (BO-LID) and dissociation of Fe-B pairs, and the latter contributed 5.81–9.56% of the efficiency loss, while those of Al-BSF cells during the first LID were almost contributed by BO-LID solely. For both kinds of cells, the cells made from the silicon wafers from middle of the ingot had the best performance throughout the experiment. In addition, the LID and regeneration treatments only affected the spectral response of the cells in the wavelength larger than 700 nm.
In this paper, five groups of industrial aluminium back-surface-field (Al-BSF) solar cells were made from silicon wafers from different locations of a B-doped Czochralski silicon ingot. Then, we performed the first LID (45 °C, 1 sun, 12 h), regeneration (100 °C, 1 sun, 24 h), and second LID (45 °C, 1 sun, 12 h) treatments on the cells, and measured the in-situ changes of their I-V characteristic parameters by using an I-V tester during the experiment. The cells were also characterized by Suns-Voc measurement, full-area light beam induced current scanning, and external quantum efficiency measurement at the four breakpoints of treatments (before and after the first LID, after regeneration and the second LID). It was found that the LID and regeneration of the Al-BSF solar cells can be explained by the LID and regeneration reaction of B-O defects and the LID caused by dissociation of Fe-B pairs. After regeneration, the relative decay rate of efficiency decreased from 2.75–3.8% during the first LID to 0.42–1.23% during the second LID, indicating that regeneration treatment (100 °C, 1 sun, 24 h) can improve the anti-LID ability of Al-BSF solar cells.
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