Chronic Migraine (CM) is a disabling neurologic condition with a severe impact on functioning and quality of life. Successful therapeutic management of patients with CM is complex, and differences in therapeutic response could be attributable to genetically determined factors, sensitivity to pharmacological treatment, psychosocial and relational factors affecting the patient’s compliance and approach on the therapeutic treatment. The aim of this prospective observational study was to explore self-efficacy, coping strategies, psychological distress and headache-related disability in a cohort of 40 patients with CM (mean age: 46.73; standard deviation 13.75) treated with OnabotulinumtoxinA and the relationship between these clinical and psychological aspects and acute medication consumption during OnabotulinumtoxinA prophylactic treatment. Patients presented an overall significant reduction in the Headache Index (HI) (p < 0.001), HI with severe intensity (p = 0.009), and total analgesic consumption (p = 0.003) after the prophylactic treatment. These results are in line with the literature. Despite this, higher nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs consumption was associated with higher psychological distress, higher HI with severe and moderate intensity, and worse quality of life. Conversely, triptans consumption was correlated with HI of mild intensity, and problem-focused coping strategies. To conclude, the psychological profile, and in particular, the psychological distress and specific coping strategies might influence the self-management of acute medication.
Introduction Implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to manage musculoskeletal conditions among physiotherapists appears suboptimal. Osteoarthritis is one of the most disabling conditions worldwide and several studies showed a lack of knowledge of and adherence to osteoarthritis CPGs in physiotherapists’ clinical practice. However, those studies are not conclusive, as they examine the knowledge of and adherence to CPGs only in isolation, or only by focussing on a single treatment. Thus, analysis of the knowledge of and adherence to CPGs in the same sample would allow for a better understanding of the evidence-to-practice gap, which, if unaddressed, can lead to suboptimal care for these patients. This study aims at assessing Italian physiotherapists’ evidence-to-practice gap in osteoarthritis CPGs. Methods An online survey divided into two sections investigating knowledge of and adherence to CPGs was developed based on three high-quality, recent and relevant CPGs. In the first section, participants had to express their agreement with 24 CPG statements through a 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree) scale. We defined a ≥ 70% agreement with a statement as consensus. In the second section, participants were shown a clinical case, with different interventions to choose from. Participants were classified as ‘Delivering’ (all recommended interventions selected), ‘Partially Delivering’ (some recommended interventions missing) and ‘Non-Delivering’ (at least one non-recommended interventions selected) the recommended intervention, depending on chosen interventions. Results 822 physiotherapists (mean age (SD): 35.8 (13.3); female 47%) completed the survey between June and July 2020. In the first section, consensus was achieved for 13/24 statements. In the second section, 25% of the participants were classified as ‘Delivering’, 22% as ‘Partially Delivering’ and 53% as ‘Non-Delivering’. Conclusions Our findings revealed an adequate level of knowledge of osteoarthritis CPGs regarding the importance of exercise and education. However, an adequate level of adherence has yet to be reached, since many physiotherapists did not advise weight reduction, but rest from physical activity, and often included secondary treatments (e.g. manual therapy) supported by low-level evidence. These results identify an evidence-to-practice gap, which may lead to non-evidence based practice behaviours for the management of patients with osteoarthritis.
This explorative cross-sectional study aims at exploring emotional distress, psychological profiles, and the attitude towards receiving psychological support in eighty-seven patients with chronic migraine (CM) undergoing OnabotulinumtoxinA prophylactic treatment (OBT-A, n = 40) or withdrawal treatment (WT, n = 47). The outcomes were explored through a specific battery of questionnaires. 25% of patients undergoing OBT-A and almost half of the patients undergoing WT reported psychological distress of at least moderate-severe level, respectively. Coping strategies, self-efficacy, and perceived social support were similar in the two groups. Patients undergoing OBT-A presented lower psychological inflexibility than patients undergoing WT. Predictors of higher psychological distress were low perceived social support by friends, low self-efficacy, and higher avoidance strategies. In both groups, most of the patients evaluated receiving psychological support to be useful (79%). The potential beneficial effects of OBT-A on the severity of symptoms and psychological distress might further support its role in the multidisciplinary management of patients with CM. Identifying patients with psychological vulnerabilities who may benefit from psychological support is relevant in patients with CM.
English knowledge is fundamental for the application of evidence-based practice. Hence, this study explores, through an online survey, the (1) perceived and (2) actual level of Scientific English among Italian undergraduate (UGs) and postgraduate (PGs) physiotherapists. As for (1), the participants expressed their agreement with 10 statements regarding the attitude towards Scientific English through a 1–4 Likert-type scale, with consensus set at ≥70%. As for (2), an ad-hoc 10-point questionnaire was developed through a Delphi procedure, with a pass score set at ≥60%. The survey was completed by 421 participants (UG: 47%; PG: 53%). As for (1), consensus was achieved in both groups in 4 out of 10 statements, specifically the ones addressing the capability to fully understand a scientific paper and physiotherapy-specific language in English. As for (2), the mean score reached by both groups was below 60%. The participants who had studied or were studying at a university in southern Italy presented 2.56 [1.54; 4.24] times higher odds to fail the test. New strategies to bridge the gap in the knowledge of Scientific English in Italy should be developed, through the creation of a unique syllabus tailored to the needs of future physiotherapists.
Several studies have investigated the effect of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) for managing chronic musculoskeletal pain, bringing contrasting results to the forefront. Thus far, however, there has been no synthesis of evidence on the effect of BoNT-A as an adjunctive treatment within a multimodal approach. Hence, Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library-CENTRAL were searched until November 2020 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the use of BoNT-A as an adjunctive therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. The risk of bias (RoB) and the overall quality of the studies were assessed through RoB 2.0 and the GRADE approach, respectively. Meta-analysis was conducted to analyse the pooled results of the six included RCTs. Four were at a low RoB, while two were at a high RoB. The meta-analysis showed that BoNT-A as an adjunctive therapy did not significantly decrease pain compared to the sole use of traditional treatment (SDM −0.89; 95% CI −1.91; 0.12; p = 0.08). Caution should be used when interpreting such results, since the studies displayed very high heterogeneity (I = 94%, p < 0.001). The overall certainty of the evidence was very low. The data retrieved from this systematic review do not support the use of BoNT-A as an adjunctive therapy in treating chronic musculoskeletal pain.
This study aims at exploring disability, health-related quality of life (HrQoL), psychological distress, and psychological features in post-stroke patients with chronic pain. An observational cross-sectional study involving 50 post-stroke patients (25 with chronic pain and 25 without pain) was conducted. The primary outcome was the self-reported level of disability and HrQoL which were both assessed through the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0. Both psychological distress and specific psychological features (i.e., self-efficacy, coping strategies, psychological flexibility, perceived social support) were examined. Post-stroke patients with chronic pain reported statistically significant higher levels of disability and worse HrQoL, higher psychological distress and inflexibility, as well as a lower level of self-efficacy and problem-oriented coping strategies than patients without pain (p < 0.001). Finally, correlation analysis in the group of stroke survivors with pain showed that higher levels of disability were significantly related to higher psychological distress. This study confirms the negative influence of chronic pain on disability and HrQoL in post-stroke patients and presents preliminary insights on the association between chronic pain, disability, HrQoL, psychosocial distress, and the patient’s approach in dealing with personal difficulties and emotions. These findings carry further implications for multidisciplinary management of post-stroke patients with chronic pain.
ObjectiveTo examine the experience of the COVID-19 pandemic as lived by people with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), in Italy.DesignA qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews.SettingUrban and suburban areas in northern Italy.ParticipantsA total of 11 people with OA were enrolled through a purposeful sampling and completed the study.Primary outcome measureThe experience of Italian people with OA during the COVID-19 pandemic.ResultsFour themes were brought to the forefront from the analysis of the interviews. (1) Being Stressed for the Limited Social Interactions and for the Family Members at High Risk of Infection, as the interviewees were frustrated because they could not see their loved ones or felt a sense of apprehension for their relatives. (2) Recurring Strategies to Cope with the Pandemic such as an active acceptance towards the situation. (3) Being Limited in the Possibility of Undergoing OA Complementary Treatments and Other Routine Medical Visits. (4) Being Unaware of the Importance of Physical Activity as First-Line Interventions which was an attitude already present before the pandemic.ConclusionThe COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions impacted the quality of life and the care of individuals with hip and knee OA. The social sphere seemed to be the most hindered. However, the interviewees developed a good level of acceptance to deal with the pandemic. When it came to their care, they faced a delay of routine medical visits not related to OA and of other complementary treatments (eg, physical therapies) to manage OA. Finally, a controversial result that emerged from these interviews was that first-line interventions for OA (ie, therapeutic exercise) was not sought by the interviewees, regardless of the restrictions dictated by the pandemic. Policy-making strategies are thus necessary to support the awareness of the importance of such interventions.
The use of low-cost immersive virtual reality systems is rapidly expanding. Several studies started to analyse the accuracy of virtual reality tracking systems, but they did not consider in depth the effects of external interferences in the working area. In line with that, this study aimed at exploring the static-positional accuracy and the robustness to occlusions inside the capture volume of the SteamVR (1.0) tracking system. To do so, we ran 3 different tests in which we acquired the position of HTC Vive PRO Trackers (2018 version) on specific points of a grid drawn on the floor, in regular tracking conditions and with partial and total occlusions. The tracking system showed a high inter- and intra-rater reliability and detected a tilted surface with respect to the floor plane. Every acquisition was characterised by an initial random offset. We estimated an average accuracy of 0.5 ± 0.2 cm across the entire grid (XY-plane), noticing that the central points were more accurate (0.4 ± 0.1 cm) than the outer ones (0.6 ± 0.1 cm). For the Z-axis, the measurements showed greater variability and the accuracy was equal to 1.7 ± 1.2 cm. Occlusion response was tested using nonparametric Bland–Altman statistics, which highlighted the robustness of the tracking system. In conclusion, our results promote the SteamVR system for static measures in the clinical field. The computed error can be considered clinically irrelevant for exercises aimed at the rehabilitation of functional movements, whose several motor outcomes are generally measured on the scale of metres.
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