This paper seeks to explore the issues and concerns that impact upon girls' and boys' friendship groups as they transfer from primary to secondary school. Using the girls' and boys' own voices, we document the extent to which their existing social relationships are disrupted as they adapt to and engage with a new school setting. Through semi-structured interviews and questionnaires conducted in the final year of primary school and the first year of secondary school, we identify students' concerns regarding their attitudes to friendship. We consider the extent to which account is taken of this aspect of children's friendships and explore and analyse commonalities and differences in their responses. We argue that the priorities of our student groups are different to those advocated by the school. We further attempt to examine how the girls and boys in our sample negotiate their new environment. Copyright # 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. IntroductionThe transition from primary to secondary school was loaded with added significance as my struggle to mask terror coincided with recognition of deeper existential fears. Sitting in my bed at night and literally shaking with fear. The first time I realised my own mortality is a resonant memory of my childhood, waking up when everyone else is asleep and feeling my stomach churn . . . the loss of the social milieu of the primary school, the demands of integration into a potentially hostile peer group in itself provoked deeply held fears of annihilation (Tuddenham, 1997: 2).Transferring from primary to secondary school is a key rite of passage for boys and girls, as they move from the seemingly familiar and safe environment of the primary school, to the unfamiliar and strange surroundings of the secondary school. During this transitional phase of schooling, children have to learn to read, negotiate and adapt to a very different school culture. Such a cultural shift includes meeting different teachers, adapting to a variety of teaching styles, a broader range of curricula, bigger and unfamiliar buildings and a far greater emphasis on regulatory measures. In addition, children find themselves repositioned as the youngest in the school, and This paper considers students' gendered attitudes to friendship, in terms of commonalities and differences at the point of transition from primary to secondary school. It has only been in relatively recent times that the perspective of boys' and girls' experience of transfer from one phase of schooling to the next has begun to be explored (Galton and Willcocks, 1983; School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (SCAA), 1996). Until this time research into primary school transfer tended to concern itself with the organisational arrangements, for example assessment procedures and selection, with the importance of friendship within this process of transfer being marginal to concerns of academic attainment and curricula demands. We would argue however, that the perspective brought by both girls and boys lays far greater emphasis on the importance of ...
This article is in many ways a pragmatist critique of pragmatism in IR, focusing on what practices scholars have mainly engaged in by drawing upon pragmatism and how to resolve problems that arise in considering them. Numerous scholars of international relations have drawn upon pragmatism to examine issues of interest to the field, largely (though not exclusively) of an epistemological or methodological nature, focusing mainly on pragmatism as a philosophy of science. Often overlooked, however, is that pragmatism is not just a philosophy of science but a distinctive and in some respects quite radical school of metaphysics, and it implies a particularly flexible form of social ontology. I thus argue for broader horizons in pragmatist theory in IR. I criticise the overly epistemological or methodological focus of the existing ways many IR scholars have used pragmatism, and discuss of how pragmatist social theory fits within existing scholarship in the field. Finally, I suggest how pragmatist social theory can contribute to ongoing IR research programmes by dissolving the dualisms of agent and structure, realism and idealism, and normative and strategic action. In other words, as a fairly coherent set of principles, pragmatism offers the foundations for a new movement in the study of international politics-indeed, such a movement has already begun, and I suggest that its horizons are particularly broad.
Faced with scepticism about the status of grand theory in International Relations, scholars are re-evaluating Kenneth Waltz’s contribution to theoretical debates in the field. Readers of Waltz have variously recast his work as structural functionalist, scientific realist and classical realist in liberal clothing. We contribute to this re-evaluation by systematically assembling misreadings of Waltz that continue to occur across all of International Relations’ schools — that his theory is positivist, rationalist and materialist — and offering a coherent synthesis of his main contributions to International Relations theory. By linking Theory of International Politics to both Man, the State, and War and Waltz’s post-1979 clarifications, we show that Waltz offers International Relations scholars a coherent vision of the worth and method of grand theory construction that is uniquely ‘international’. In particular, we focus on Waltz’s methodology of theory building and use of images, demonstrating these to be underappreciated but crucially important aspects of Waltz’s work. We finish by proposing methodological, practical and pedagogical ‘takeaways’ for International Relations scholars that emerge from our analysis.
LA SCHOLA PRAECONUM IIIn questo secondo rapporto sugli scavi della Schola Praeconum in Palatino, gli AA. presentano materiali da due contesti tardo-antichi: SP I, un riempimento datato al periodo 430–440 c. e SP II, un' altero riempimento probabilmente databile ai primi decenni del VII secoto. Dal contesto SP I si presenta i vetri, i bolli laterizi, i semi e gli insetti; dal SP II, le monete, le ceramiche e le lucerne. Il materiale ceramico dal contesto SP II stimola alcune ipotesi sui rapporti commerciali di Roma nel VII secolo. Infine, due appendici presentano una discussione delle iscrizioni dipinte sulle anfore di argilla 14 e un' analisi del contenuto delle anfore importate da Bi e Gaza in Palestina.
I propose a relational understanding of ontological security, based on a synthesis of pragmatist philosophy and relational sociology. This relocates the referent of ontological security from the self to the social arrangements in where action takes place. It implies that actors seek not to secure the coherence and stability of self in particular, but rather of their broader social context. By taking this relational approach, international relations scholars may avoid methodological difficulties in accessing or defining the cognitive or affective processes shaping certain actors, while honing in on the social embeddedness of action. I outline three causal mechanisms for theorizing ontological security in particular cases: refereeing, performative deference, and obstructive resistance. I do so with reference to prominent methodological frameworks in relational sociology-namely, those based on fields and on figurations, respectively. Finally, I connect this new approach to theorizing ontological security to existing trends in relational international relations research. I argue that it provides a theoretical architecture more sensitive to action and agency than is offered by many existing relational approaches, and is especially well-suited to the study of precarious forms of transnational life.
This issue is devoted entirely to papers presented to the Society's Tenth Annual ' Conference, held from 18-20 September 1981 in the University of Bristol on &dquo;The Politics of Educational Improvement&dquo;. This title served us well in getting the discussion under way but by dinner-time on the first day the original title had already been forgotten, almost. Micropolitics was now the name of the game. But the enabling of educational improvement or, more modestly, the removal of organisational features which impede such improvement has been the central concern of enlightened educational administrators ever since the first Privy Council grants for public education were made early in the nineteenth century. The Society's aims, established at its foundation meeting a decade ago, are entirely within this tradition, in particular &dquo;to provide a forum for the discussion of rtew approaches to the preparation and development of administrators and new developments in research and to link theory and practice ...&dquo;. But 10 years ago, when our principal concern in this country was with local government reorganisation, we were approaching the problem as primarily one of designing structures for the achievement of specified purposes. The setting of objectives seems to have been regarded by commentators as an essentially managerial process to be carried out within pre-ordained structures rather than as a political process in which interested parties bargained over the rules of the game while it was being played. A chasm opened between the perspective of those who were guided by the principle that public business ought to be conducted more systematically and that of others who were sceptical of the resulting prescriptions, regarding them as not being grounded in reality or, more sinisterly, as being dependent for their implementation upon the imposition, from the top down, of a &dquo;managerial&dquo; view of reality. The position was obfuscated further by the apparent divergence of interests of &dquo;administrators&dquo; in the world of education from those of &dquo;managers&dquo; elsewhere in local government: the preparation of the Bains Report (1972) on the management and structure of the new local authorities by a group from which senior education administrators were excluded must have served to underline the divergence of interests and thus to mask the fundamental difference of opinion over the legitimacy, and indeed the relevance, of the attitudes and perceptions of those involved in the implementation of planned development. However, signs had already begun to appear in the literature of educational administration recognising that structure, function and process were interactive, that the experience of political bargaining processes provided a major impulse for organisational change and that this experience was a subject worthy of study. Kogan's accounts of discussions with Ministers (Kogan, 1971) and with CEOs (Kogan and Van der Eyken, 1973) came as manna to those who wanted their theory to be grounded in obser...
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