Freshwater ichthyofauna from Brazil Northeast region was considered as being poorly known until recent years, with a considerable number of publications becoming available in the last decade. The present study provides an inventory of freshwater fish species from the Paraíba do Norte River basin located in Paraíba State, Brazil. This inventory is intended to contribute to the of knowledge to the regional fish diversity, pre-transposition of the São Francisco River. Collecting data was obtained from ichthyological databases of both national and foreign institutions. A total of 47 freshwater fish species are registered within the Paraíba do Norte River basin, represented by 38 genera, 20 families and six orders. Characiformes, comprising 47% (22 species), Cichliformes, and Siluriformes are among the most representative orders, 19% (9 species) each, of total recorded species. Seven species of Cichliformes are reported as introduced species in this basin. Cyprinodontiformes and Gobiiformes also registered in this region and correspond to 5% (two species) and Gymnotiformes, Perciformes and Synbranchiformes, 2% (one species each) of total recorded species. Paraíba do Norte River basin stands out in the current national scenario as it comprises the first region from the Mid-Northeastern Caatinga freshwater ecoregion to receive water from the transposition of the São Francisco River. The current inventory is important as it provides scientific data related to the ichthyofauna of Paraíba do Norte River basin prior to the commencement of the river transposition process. An identification key is also given for the freshwater fish species of the region.
The scale of impact that the São Francisco River transposition project will have on the drainage basins ichthyofauna is still unclear, however, changes in the fish community diversity and abundance is probable. Surveys and registries of the fish fauna within key systems of the catchment basins are priority actions for the conservation of the aquatic diversity. This study conducted a taxonomic survey of the Epitácio Pessoa (Boqueirão municipality) and Argemiro de Figueiredo (Itatuba municipality), reservoirs ichthyofauna, both belonging to the Paraíba do Norte River basin, important socioeconomic and environmental systems for the transposition project. Monthly sampling was carried out between October/2014 to September/2015 in the upstream and downstream zones of the reservoirs. The specimens were collected using dip nets, drag nets, and sieves, and placed on ice in the field. Later in the laboratory, they were transferred to 10% formaldehyde and then preserved in 70% alcohol. A total of 2,328 specimens were collected representing five orders, 14 families, and 31 species in both systems. At the upstream zones 2057 specimens were collected representing 17 species, and at the downstream zones 271 specimens were collected representing 24 species. Of the 31 species recorded, 13 species are endemic to watersheds that drain rivers from the Brazilian semi-arid region, and seven species (Apareiodon davisi, Characidium bimaculatum, Hypostomus pusarum, Parotocinclus jumbo, P. spilosoma, Pimelodella enochi, and Prochilodus brevis) are endemic to the Mid-Northeastern Caatinga Ecoregion (MNCE). Among the latter, Parotocinclus spilosoma and Pimelodella enochi are endemic to the Paraíba do Norte River. Apareiodon davisi is classified as Endangered according to the current published Brazil's official list of endangered species of fish and aquatic invertebrates. This pre-transposition ichthyofaunistic survey will serve as a basis for future post-transposition analyzes, considering this action will change the scope of the ecosystems diversity. Keywords: Endemism, Paraíba, Basins Transposition. Composição da ictiofauna em reservatórios do semiárido brasileiroResumo: A dimensão do impacto que a transposição do rio São Francisco provocará na ictiofauna das bacias receptoras ainda é imprecisa, entretanto, é provável que haja alterações na riqueza e abundância da comunidade de peixes. Levantamentos e registros prévios da fauna íctica em sistemas chaves das bacias receptoras são ações prioritárias para a conservação da diversidade aquática. Este estudo realizou o levantamento taxonômico da ictiofauna dos reservatórios Epitácio Pessoa (município de Boqueirão), e Argemiro de Figueiredo (município Itatuba), ambos pertencentes a bacia hidrográfica do rio Paraíba do Norte, estado da Paraíba, importantes sistemas sócioeconômicos e ambientais para o projeto da transposição. Assim, foram realizadas amostragens mensais de Outubro/2014 a Setembro/2015 nas zonas lacustres e a jusante dos reservatórios. Os espécimes foram coletados com red...
We provide the first record of Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther, 1866) in a river basin in the northeastern Brazil. Specimens were collected in the Jaguaribe River basin, João Pessoa, Paraíba state, Brazil. Two hundred eighty-one specimens, corresponding to 143 males and 138 females of X. maculatus, were collected at nine sites along the basin, from 2017 to 2019. Specimens total length ranged from 17.5 to 26.6 mm in males and from 11.7 to 32.7 mm in females. Introduction of non-native species greatly threatens the biological diversity worldwide. When introduced into a new habitat, X. maculatus usually decreases microcrustacean, macroinvertebrate and native fish populations.
The Neotropical region hosts 4225 freshwater fish species, ranking first among the world's most diverse regions for freshwater fishes. Our NEOTROPICAL FRESHWATER FISHES data set is the first to produce a large‐scale Neotropical freshwater fish inventory, covering the entire Neotropical region from Mexico and the Caribbean in the north to the southern limits in Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, and Uruguay. We compiled 185,787 distribution records, with unique georeferenced coordinates, for the 4225 species, represented by occurrence and abundance data. The number of species for the most numerous orders are as follows: Characiformes (1289), Siluriformes (1384), Cichliformes (354), Cyprinodontiformes (245), and Gymnotiformes (135). The most recorded species was the characid Astyanax fasciatus (4696 records). We registered 116,802 distribution records for native species, compared to 1802 distribution records for nonnative species. The main aim of the NEOTROPICAL FRESHWATER FISHES data set was to make these occurrence and abundance data accessible for international researchers to develop ecological and macroecological studies, from local to regional scales, with focal fish species, families, or orders. We anticipate that the NEOTROPICAL FRESHWATER FISHES data set will be valuable for studies on a wide range of ecological processes, such as trophic cascades, fishery pressure, the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation, and the impacts of species invasion and climate change. There are no copyright restrictions on the data, and please cite this data paper when using the data in publications.
The distribution and feeding ecology of two puffer fish, Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Colomesus psittacus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), were investigated in a tropical estuary (north-eastern Brazil). The hypothesis tested was that these two species partition available resources spatially, and that the effects of interspecific competition can be reduced by changes in the feeding strategy and using alternative resources. This study was carried out between February 2011 and January 2012, on a beach and three tidal creeks of the Mamanguape River estuary. Data on the distribution and relative abundance of the two species were collected using beach seine, with data on temperature, salinity and turbidity also recorded. The diets of the species (S. testudineus N = 399; C. psittacus N = 108) were analysed by the Index of Relative Importance (IRI). Sphoeroides testudineus was found in the entire area, but was particularly abundant in the upper estuary, while C. psittacus was captured exclusively in the upper estuary, with all individuals assumed to be juveniles. In regard to feeding, juvenile S. testudineus predated on Bivalves, Ceratopogonidae larvae, calanoids and gastropods; whilst C. psittacus showed a diet more specialized in Brachyura and Cirripedia. These results suggest that there are differences in both habitat utilization and feeding habits of these two puffer fish species in this estuary.
Construction of water diversions in drylands is boosted by increasing demands for freshwater often due to prolonged droughts. Even though these mega-enterprises result in benefits to society, it also poses a threat to freshwater biodiversity. In Northeastern Brazil, for instance, the São Francisco River Integration Project already supplies water for millions of people, but over time it will also favor the introductions of multiple aquatic species in the river basins of the Northeastern Caatinga and Coastal Drainages ecoregion. These introductions can cause unprecedented impacts in the native ichthyofauna, such as homogenization of freshwater faunas, transmission of pathogens and loss of native species. This study compares the composition and relative frequency of fish species from Poções reservoir using data obtained by gillnetting and trawling before and after the São Francisco diversion in the dry and rainy seasons, and reports the first detection of Moenkhausia costae introduction in the Paraíba do Norte basin, through the São Francisco River channel. Our results show some evidences that M. costae may become dominant and invasive in Poções reservoir. The introduction of M. costae adds a new component of disruption for these freshwaters and may pose a serious threat to the endemic ichthyofauna in lentic and lotic systems from the Paraíba do Norte basin.
A new species of Parotocinclus is described from the Rio Mamanguape basin, in the State of Paraíba, north‐eastern Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from all of its congeners, except for P. bahiensis, P. cesarpintoi, P. jumbo, P. nandae and P. spilosoma, by the presence of an abdomen covered by a few small and dispersed platelets (vs. an abdomen entirely covered by large plates in adult individuals or the absence of plates in that region). The new species differs from those mentioned above with respect to several features, such as an exposed pectoral girdle and supporting odontodes medially and laterally, the number of premaxillary and dentary teeth, odontodes covering only the lateral portion of the cleithrum and the absence of irregular golden lines on the head and body (colour in vivo). The new species was collected only in the upper and middle portions of the Rio Mamanguape basin, suggesting a geographic distribution restricted to the Caatinga biome.
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