Background: Migraine is a primary headache that commonly starts in childhood and adolescent's periods with great negative impacts on the educational and psychosocial performances of its sufferers. The objectives of this work were to study the existence and types of sleep and psychiatric abnormalities in school-age children with migraine (SCM). Methods: The study was conducted on 40 SCM and 20 age-and sex-matched healthy control subjects (HCS) submitted to history taking, neurological examination, Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment (PedMIDAS) questionnaire, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Epworth Sleepiness Scale for Children and Adolescents (ESS-CHAD), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and one-night polysomnography (PSG). Results: The study showed a high incidence of psychiatric and sleep abnormalities in SCM. The most common psychiatric disorders were anxious depressed symptoms, withdrawal depressed symptoms, social problem, somatic complaints, and attention problems. At the same time, SCM experienced decreased sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and PSG abnormalities in the form of decreased total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE) in addition to increased sleep latency, wake after sleep onset (WASO), arousal index (AI), and REM sleep without atonia index. Conclusion: Sleep and psychiatric abnormalities are common underdiagnosed pediatric migraine comorbidities greatly reducing headache control and school performance in this very important period of psychosocial development.
Background Olfactory dysfunction (OD) is a well-established nonmotor manifestations (NMM) of Parkinson disease (PD) which needs objective assessment for better understanding of the disease pathogenesis. The aim of this work was quantitative and qualitative assessment of olfactory performance in newly diagnosed PD patients. Methods This study was performed on 32 recently diagnosed PD patients and 24 healthy controls subjects (HCS) submitted to unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale–III (UPDRS–III), extended n-butanol Sniffin’ Sticks test (SST) and olfactory bulbs volumetry (OBV). Results There were significant decreases in SST threshold, discrimination, identification, and TDI variables as well as OBV in PD patients compared to HCS. The olfactory performance was negatively correlated with disease duration but had no relation with PD severity as well as motor subtype. Conclusion OD is highly prevalent during the early stages of PD which is both measurable and specific with identification and discrimination impairments to certain odors which makes smell performance testing an important step in PD patients’ evaluation.
Background Essential tremor (ET) is now considered as a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a variety of motor and non-motor manifestations. The objectives of this work were to study the existence of cognitive, mood, olfactory, and balance dysfunctions in ET patients and their relation to tremor severity as well as patients’ activity of daily livings. Methods This study was performed on 36 ET patients and 24 healthy controls subjects (HCS) submitted to The Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale (TETRAS), advanced activity of daily living scale (AADLs), Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA), Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), auditory mismatch negativity (MMN), Sniffin’ Sticks test (SST), computerized dynamic posturography (CDP), and brain MRI diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Results ET patients showed significant decrease in AADLs, MoCA, SST (threshold, identification, and discrimination subscales) as well as visual and vestibular ratios of CDP compared to HCS. Auditory MMN showed significant reduction in the amplitude and prolongation of latencies while corticospinal tracts, thalamo-cortical connectivity, and middle cerebellar peduncles DTT revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in ET patients with normal tracts densities. Conclusion ET patients exhibit a wide variety of non-motor manifestations including cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, hyposmia, and increased risk of falls with consecutive reduced activity of daily living beyond the deleterious effects of the kinetic tremor.
Background The description of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) a benign self-limited generalized epilepsy has become a matter of debate. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the existence of psychiatric and cognitive impairments among patients with typical CAE and to correlate their possible relation to seizure frequency, duration of epilepsy, IISL, and valproate therapy. Methods The study was conducted on 19 typical CAE patients receiving valproate therapy, 11 newly diagnosed CAE patients not receiving AEDs, and 30 healthy control subjects (HCS). Participants were subjected to medical history taking, EEG monitoring, child behavior checklist (CBCL), Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale 5th edition, and computerized psychometric tests that assess cognitive domains and executive functions. Results The study revealed a high rate of cognitive and psychiatric dysfunctions in CAE patients. 53.3% of patients had psychiatric problems versus 16.6% in HCS. Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) (26.6%), anxiety (16.6%), and depression (6.6%) were the most common psychiatric disorders in the patient group. Withdrawn/depressed symptoms, thought problems, social problems, and attention problems in CAE patients were significantly increased compared to HCS. At the same time, CAE patients perform worse in cognitive scales than HCS with comparable intelligent quotient (IQ) scores. Conclusion Cognitive and psychiatric impairments in typical CAE patients appear multifactorial in origin with epilepsy-related factors including the duration of epilepsy and interictal spike load (IISL).
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