Reactive haemophagocytic syndrome is a life-threatening disease for which factors influencing the outcome remain unclear. We sought to identify determinants of early mortality in patients with reactive haemophagocytic syndrome by conducting a non-interventional retrospective multicentre study in three tertiary care teaching hospitals over a 6-year period. The medical files of 162 patients fulfilling our diagnostic criteria of haemophagocytic syndrome were reviewed. Patients were classified according to 30-d outcome following diagnosis. Thirty-three patients (20·4%) died within 30 d. Clinical features at diagnosis associated with 30-d death in univariate analysis were older age (P = 0·004), underlying lymphoma (P = 0·04), lower platelet count (P = 0·001) and elevated aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0·04 both). The use of etoposide as a first-line treatment tended to be associated with a better outcome (P = 0·079). In multivariate analyses, increasing age, decreasing platelet count, underlying lymphoma and no etoposide in the management were associated with a poorer prognosis (P = 0·03, 0·01, 0·003 and 0·04, respectively). These prognostic factors could help to identify those patients more severely affected by reactive haemophagocytic syndrome, who should benefit from aggressive supportive care, combined with specific treatment of the precipitating factor.
Background Various observations have suggested that the course of COVID-19 might be less favourable in patients with inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases receiving rituximab compared with those not receiving rituximab. We aimed to investigate whether treatment with rituximab is associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in patients with inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases.Methods In this cohort study, we analysed data from the French RMD COVID-19 cohort, which included patients aged 18 years or older with inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases and highly suspected or confirmed COVID-19. The primary endpoint was the severity of COVID-19 in patients treated with rituximab (rituximab group) compared with patients who did not receive rituximab (no rituximab group). Severe disease was defined as that requiring admission to an intensive care unit or leading to death. Secondary objectives were to analyse deaths and duration of hospital stay. The inverse probability of treatment weighting propensity score method was used to adjust for potential confounding factors (age, sex, arterial hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, body-mass index, interstitial lung disease, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, corticosteroid use, chronic renal failure, and the underlying disease [rheumatoid arthritis vs others]). Odds ratios and hazard ratios and their 95% CIs were calculated as effect size, by dividing the two population mean differences by their SD. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04353609.
ObjectivesSystemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterised by widespread fibrosis, microangiopathy and autoantibodies. Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+ cooperate with B lymphocytes to induce the differentiation of plasmocytes secreting immunoglobulins (Ig). Circulating Tfh (cTfh) cells are increased in several autoimmune diseases. However, there are no data about cTfh cells and their interaction with B cells in SSc. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative and functional analysis of cTfh cells in SSc.MethodsUsing flow cytometry, we analysed cTfh cells from 50 patients with SSc and 32 healthy controls (HC). In vitro coculture experiments of sorted cTfh and B cells were performed for functional analysis. IgG and IgM production were measured by ELISA.ResultsWe observed that cTfh cell numbers are increased in patients with SSc compared with HC. Furthermore, the increase in cTfh cells was more potent in patients with severe forms of SSc such as diffuse SSc and in the presence of arterial pulmonary hypertension. cTfh cells from patients with SSc present an activated Tfh phenotype, with high expression of BCL-6, increased capacity to produce IL-21 in comparison with healthy controls. In vitro, cTfh cells from patients with SSc had higher capacity to stimulate the differentiation of CD19+CD27+CD38hi B cells and their secretion of IgG and IgM through the IL-21 pathway than Tfh cells from healthy controls. Blocking IL-21R or using the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib reduced the Tfh cells’ capacity to stimulate the plasmablasts and decreased the Ig production.ConclusionsCirculating Tfh cells are increased in SSc and correlate with SSc severity. The IL-21 pathway or JAK1/2 blockade by ruxolitinib could be a promising strategy in the treatment of SSc.
Using the same Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth version (DSM-V) criteria as in adults, borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescents is defined as a 1-year pattern of immature personality development with disturbances in at least five of the following domains: efforts to avoid abandonment, unstable interpersonal relationships, identity disturbance, impulsivity, suicidal and self-mutilating behaviors, affective instability, chronic feelings of emptiness, inappropriate intense anger, and stress-related paranoid ideation. BPD can be reliably diagnosed in adolescents as young as 11 years. The available epidemiological studies suggest that the prevalence of BPD in the general population of adolescents is around 3%. The clinical prevalence of BPD ranges from 11% in adolescents consulting at an outpatient clinic to 78% in suicidal adolescents attending an emergency department. The diagnostic procedure is based on a clinical assessment with respect to developmental milestones and the interpersonal context. The key diagnostic criterion is the 1-year duration of symptoms. Standardized, clinician-rated instruments are available for guiding this assessment (eg, the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines-Revised and the Childhood Interview for DSM-IV-TR BPD). The assessment should include an evaluation of the suicidal risk. Differential diagnosis is a particular challenge, given the high frequency of mixed presentations and comorbidities. With respect to clinical and epidemiological studies, externalizing disorders in childhood constitute a risk factor for developing BPD in early adolescence, whereas adolescent depressive disorders are predictive of BPD in adulthood. The treatment of adolescents with BPD requires commitment from the parents, a cohesive medical team, and a coherent treatment schedule. With regard to evidence-based medicine, psychopharmacological treatment is not recommended and, if ultimately required, should be limited to second-generation antipsychotics. Supportive psychotherapy is the most commonly available first-line treatment. Randomized controlled trials have provided evidence in favor of the use of specific, manualized psychotherapies (dialectic-behavioral therapy, cognitive analytic therapy, and mentalization-based therapy).
Reactive haemophagocytic syndrome (HS) is a rare condition that occurs in patients with infections, haematological malignancies or autoimmune diseases. Although various microorganisms are thought to trigger HS, most of the literature data on this topic have been gathered in single-centre case series. Here, we sought to characterize infectious triggers in a large, multicentre cohort of patients with HS. Patients were included in the present study if HS was solely due to one or more infections. Detailed microbiological data were recorded. Of the 162 patients with HS in the cohort, 40 (25%) had at least one infection and 38 of the latter (including 14 women, 36.8%) were included. The median age was 46 years. Seven patients were presumed to be immunocompetent (18.4%), whereas 19 patients (50%) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus and 12 patients (31.6%) were immunocompromised for other reasons. Twenty-seven patients (71.1%) had a single infection, whereas six (15.8%) and five (13.1%) patients had, respectively, two and three concomitant infections. We observed pyogenic bacterial infections (n = 7), tuberculosis (n = 10), non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis (n = 3), viral infections (n = 17: 11 cytomegalovirus, three Epstein-Barr virus, two human herpesvirus 8, one herpes simplex virus 2), parasitic infections (n = 8: four disseminated toxoplasmosis, one leishmaniasis, three malaria), fungal infections (n = 5: four pulmonary pneumocystosis and one candidaemia). Eighteen patients (47.4%) received corticosteroids and/or etoposide. Twelve patients died (31.6%). All multiple infections and all deaths occurred in immunocompromised patients. When compared with patients suffering from malignancy-associated HS, patients with infection-triggered HS were younger and more likely to be immunocompromised, and had a better outcome.
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