While the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) pathway plays essential roles in growth and development, diminished signaling via this pathway in model organisms extends lifespan and health-span. In humans, circulating IGF-1 and IGF-binding proteins 3 and 1 (IGFBP-3 and 1), surrogate measures of GH/IGF-1 system activity, have not been consistently associated with morbidity and mortality. In a prospective cohort of independently-living older adults (n = 840, mean age 76.1 ± 6.8 years, 54.5% female, median follow-up 6.9 years), we evaluated the age- and sex-adjusted hazards for all-cause mortality and incident age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and multiple-domain cognitive impairment (MDCI), as predicted by baseline total serum IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-1 levels. All-cause mortality was positively associated with IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05–1.57) and negatively with IGFBP-3 (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.680–0.998). High serum IGF-1 predicted greater risk for MDCI (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.08–2.26) and composite incident morbidity (HR 1.242, 95% CI 1.004–1.538), whereas high IGFBP-1 predicted lower risk for diabetes (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29–0.88). In conclusion, higher IGF-1 levels and bioavailability predicted mortality and morbidity risk, supporting the hypothesis that diminished GH/IGF-1 signaling may contribute to human longevity and health-span.
Background Recurrent hypoglycemia blunts counter-regulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemic episodes, a syndrome known as hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). Since adrenergic receptor blockade has been reported to prevent HAAF, we investigated whether the hypoglycemia-associated rise in plasma epinephrine contributes to pathophysiology and reported interindividual differences in susceptibility to HAAF. Methods To assess the role of hypoglycemia-associated epinephrine responses in the susceptibility to HAAF, 24 adult nondiabetic subjects underwent two 2-hour hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp studies (nadir 54 mg/dL; 0-2 hours and 4-6 hours) on Day 1, followed by a third identical clamp on Day 2. We challenged an additional 7 subjects with two 2-hour infusions of epinephrine (0.03 μg/kg/min; 0-2 hours and 4-6 hours) vs saline on Day 1 followed by a 200-minute stepped hypoglycemic clamp (90, 80, 70, and 60 mg/dL) on Day 2. Results Thirteen out of 24 subjects developed HAAF, defined by ≥20% reduction in average epinephrine levels during the final 30 minutes of the third compared with the first hypoglycemic episode (P < 0.001). Average epinephrine levels during the final 30 minutes of the first hypoglycemic episode were 2.3 times higher in subjects who developed HAAF compared with those who did not (P = 0.006). Compared to saline, epinephrine infusion on Day 1 reduced the epinephrine responses by 27% at the 70 and 60 mg/dL glucose steps combined (P = 0.04), with a parallel reduction in hypoglycemic symptoms (P = 0.03) on Day 2. Conclusions Increases in plasma epinephrine reproduce key features of HAAF in nondiabetic subjects. Marked interindividual variability in epinephrine responses to hypoglycemia may explain an individual’s susceptibility to developing HAAF.
Common chronic diseases represent the greatest driver of rising healthcare costs, as well as declining function, independence, and quality of life. Geroscience-guided approaches seek to delay the onset and progression of multiple chronic conditions by targeting fundamental biological pathways of aging. This approach is more likely to improve overall health and function in old age than treating individual diseases, by addressing aging the largest and mostly ignored risk factor for the leading causes of morbidity in older adults. Nevertheless, challenges in repurposing existing and moving newly discovered interventions from the bench to clinical care have impeded the progress of this potentially transformational paradigm shift. In this article, we propose the creation of a standardized process for evaluating FDA-approved medications for their geroscience potential. Criteria for systematically evaluating the existing literature that spans from animal models to human studies will permit the prioritization of efforts and financial investments for translating geroscience and allow immediate progress on the design of the next Targeting Aging with MEtformin (TAME)-like study involving such candidate gerotherapeutics.
We analyzed (a) insulin sensitivity (IS), (b) plasma insulin (PI), and (c) plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with (group A) and without (group B) atherothrombotic ischemic stroke (ATIS), nondiabetics with ATIS (group C), and healthy controls (group D). IS was determined by minimal model (Si). Si was lower in A versus B (1.18 ± 0.67 versus 2.82 ± 0.61 min−1/mU/L × 104; P < 0.001) and in C versus D (3.18 ± 0.93 versus 6.13 ± 1.69 min−1/mU/L × 104; P < 0.001). PI and PAI-1 were higher in A versus B (PI: 19.61 ± 4.08 versus 14.91 ± 1.66 mU/L; P < 0.001, PAI-1: 7.75 ± 1.04 versus 4.57 ± 0.72 mU/L; P < 0.001) and in C versus D (PI: 15.14 ± 2.20 versus 7.58 ± 2.05 mU/L; P < 0.001, PAI-1: 4.78 ± 0.98 versus 3.49 ± 1.04 mU/L; P < 0.001). Si correlated with PAI-1 in T2D patients and nondiabetics, albeit stronger in T2D. Binary logistic regression identified insulin, PAI-1, and Si as independent predictors for ATIS in T2D patients and nondiabetics. The results imply that insulin resistance and fasting hyperinsulinemia might exert their atherogenic impact through the impaired fibrinolysis.
A., and S.B. analyzed data and wrote the manuscript. K.Z. and D.M.H. conducted experiments, acquired and analyzed data, and provided reagents. S.Ke., S.Ko., and S.R.M. conducted experiments and acquired and analyzed data. M.H. designed the research studies, analyzed data, and wrote the manuscript. M.H. is the guarantor of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Recurrent hypoglycemia leads to HAAF, with blunted counterregulatory hormone responses to subsequent hypoglycemic episodes. A recent report suggested inter-individual differences in susceptibility to HAAF (JCEM 102:3571, 2017). Since adrenergic receptor blockade prevents HAAF (Diabetes 60:602, 2011), we investigated to what extent the rises in plasma epinephrine (EPI) associated with hypoglycemia predict the development of HAAF. Healthy non-diabetic subjects (n=18, age 43±2years, BMI 25±1 kg/m2) underwent two 2-hour hypoglycemic clamp studies (nadir 54mg/dl; 0-2h and 4-6 h) on Day 1 followed by a third 2-hour hypoglycemic clamp on Day 2. Twelve subjects (67%) developed HAAF by the third episode, as defined by at least 20% reductions in peak EPI levels (peak EPI 1st vs. 3rd episode: HAAF subjects 1072±156 vs. 530±87pg/ml, p<0.001). Importantly, peak EPI levels during the 1st hypoglycemic episode were ∼83% higher in the subjects who developed HAAF compared to those who did not (p=0.02). To specifically define the role of EPI in the pathogenesis of HAAF, we challenged an additional seven non-diabetic subjects (age 32±4 years, BMI 25±1 kg/m2) with two 2-hour infusions of EPI (0.03 μg/kg/min;0-2h and 4-6 h) on Day 1 followed by 200-minute stepped hypoglycemic clamps (90, 80, 70 and 60 mg/dl, each for 50 minutes) on Day 2. Compared to saline, EPI infusion on Day 1 induced 40% and 28% reductions in epinephrine response to hypoglycemia at the 70 and 60 mg/dl glucose steps on Day 2, respectively (all p<0.05). There were parallel reductions in hypoglycemic symptoms (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the rate of glucose infusion was higher at all steps after EPI infusion (all p<0.05), consistent with a trend towards lower endogenous glucose production (6,6-D2-glucose). Thus, rises in EPI similar to those seen with hypoglycemia reproduce key features of HAAF in non-diabetic subjects. Marked inter-individual variability in EPI levels in response to hypoglycemia may explain why some people are more prone to develop HAAF. Disclosure E. Lontchi Yimagou: None. S. Aleksic: None. L. Upadhyay: None. S. Sharma: None. M. Carey: None. A. Goyal: None. J. You: None. R. Hulkower: None. S. Murthi: None. W.G. Mitchell: None. H. Shamoon: None. M. Hawkins: Other Relationship; Self; Novo Nordisk Inc. Funding American Diabetes Association (1-18-PMF-024 to E.L.Y.); National Institutes of Health (R01DK079974)
We analyzed (a) insulin sensitivity (IS) and (b) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients with atherothrombotic infarction (ATI) (group A), lacunar infarction (LI) (B), or without stroke (C) and in nondiabetics with ATI (D), LI (E), or without stroke (F). ATI and LI were confirmed by brain imaging IS levels were determined by minimal model (Si index), and the enzyme activity by spectrophotometry. In T2D patients, Si was lower in A and B versus C (1.14 ± 0.58, 1.00 ± 0.26 versus 3.14 ± 0.62 min−1/mU/l × 104, P < 0.001) and in nondiabetics in D and E versus F (3.38 ± 0.77, 3.03 ± 0.72 versus 6.03 ± 1.69 min−1/mU/l × 104, P < 0.001). Also, GSH-Px and GR activities were lower in A and B versus C (GSH-Px: 21.96 ± 3.56, 22.51 ± 1.23 versus 25.12 ± 1.67; GR: 44.37 ± 3.58, 43.50 ± 2.39 versus 48.58 ± 3.67 U/gHb; P < 0.001) and in D and E versus F (GSH-Px: 24.75 ± 3.02, 25.57 ± 1.92 versus 28.56 ± 3.91; GR: 48.27 ± 6.81, 49.17 ± 6.24 versus 53.67 ± 3.96 U/gHb; P < 0.001). Decreases in Si and GR were significantly related to both ATI and LI in T2D. Our results showed that decreased IS and impaired antioxidant enzymes activity influence ischemic stroke subtypes in T2D. The influence of insulin resistance might be exerted on the level of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes.
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