BackgroundAnimals have been used as a source of medicine in Brazil since ancient times, and have played a significant role in healing practices. Specifically in Northeast Brazil, zootherapy is a very common practice, and together with medicinal plants, it plays an important role as a therapeutic alternative. In the state of Ceara, no works have been carried out on rural communities with regard to use of zootherapeutics, even though the practice of zootherapy is common in this region. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal animals in a rural community (Poco Dantas) in the municipality of Crato, Ceara, Brazil.MethodsThe field survey was carried out from October 2008 to January 2009 by conducting interviews using structured questionnaires with 72 people (33 men and 39 women), who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and ailments for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the informant consensus factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species use value (UV) to determine the extent of utilization of each species.ResultsA total of 29 species, distributed in 17 families were categorized as having some medicinal property. The taxa most represented were: mammals (9), insects (7), reptiles and birds (4). Progne chalybea, a species not previously recorded as being of medicinal use, was cited in the present work, where it is utilized in the treatment of alcoholism. The animals are used in the treatment of 34 diseases or symptoms, where sore throat, inflammations and cough are the ailments with the greatest number of citations.ConclusionThe data show that zootherapy represents an important therapeutic alternative for the inhabitants of the community. New studies on medicinal fauna should be conducted with the aim of determining the exploitation level of the species utilized, promoting sustainable development of medicinal species that are eventually threatened, and preserving and disseminating the knowledge developed by traditional individuals of the community.
Background: Human communities consistently develop a detailed knowledge of the therapeutical and medicinal properties of the local flora and fauna, and these folk remedies often substitute medicines produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Animals (and their derived products) are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. The present work prepared an inventory of the animals sold in public markets in the cities of Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará State, Brazil.
Parasites are natural regulators of their host populations. Despite this, little is known about variations in parasite composition (spatially or temporally) in environments subjected to water-related periodic stress such as the arid and semiarid regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial-temporal variation in endoparasite species' abundance and richness in populations of Neotropical Cnemidophorus ocellifer, Tropidurus hispidus, and Tropidurus semitaeniatus lizards in the semiarid northeast of Brazil. The location influenced the abundance of parasites in all analyzed lizard species, while season (dry and rainy) only influenced the total abundance for T. hispidus. In all seasons, males significantly showed more endoparasites than females in all lizard species, although for T. hispidus, this difference was only found in the dry season. Seasonal variations affect the abundance patterns of parasites. Likely, variables include environmental variations such as humidity and temperature, which influence the development of endoparasite eggs when outside of the host. Further, the activity of the intermediate hosts and the parasites of heteroxenous life cycles could be affected by an environmental condition. The variation in the abundance of parasites between the sampling areas could be a reflection of variations in climate and physiochemical conditions. Also, it could be due to differences in the quality of the environment in which each host population lives.
Abstract:The state of Piauí is located between the Caatinga and Cerrado biomes in Northeastern Brazil, having a rich heterogeneity of habitats. However, publications regarding the amphibians of this state are scarce. We compiled literature data and complemented it with amphibian inventories in some municipalities of Piauí and present a list of 55 species (54 anurans and one caecilian). Ten of them are endemic to the Cerrado biome (Rhinella veredas, R. cerradensis, R. mirandaribeiroi, R. rubescens, Dendropsophus rubicundulus, Phyllomeduza azurea, Leptodactylus pustulatus, Eupemphix nattereri, Physalaemus centralis, and Proceratophrys goyana) and two endemic to the Caatinga (Rhinella jimi and Ceratophrys joazeirensis). We also present data about species richness of 18 sampled municipalities, species distribution patterns, and conservation status.
The parameters of infection by lung parasites from two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara and Anolis brasiliensis, from the Atlantic Rainforest of the lower slope of Chapada do Araripe in Northeastern Brazil were analyzed between September, 2009 and July, 2010. A total of 202 lizards were collected. 125 specimens were from Mabuya arajara and 77 from Anolis brasiliensis. M. arajara was infected by the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae while A. brasiliensis was infected by the nematode Rhabdias sp., with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The mean intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. was 3.63 ± 2.58 (range 1-15). The body size and sex of lizards did not influence the intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. The overall prevalence was also not different between males and females hosts in A. brasiliensis. Both Anolis brasiliensis and Mabuya arajara represent a new host to Rhabdias sp. and Raillietiella mottae, respectively.Keywords: lizard, pulmonary infection, pentastomida, nematoda.Infecção pulmonar em dois lagartos simpátricos, Mabuya arajara (Scincidae) e Anolis brasiliensis na mata-úmida da Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil Resumo Os parâmetros de infecção por parasitas pulmonares em dois lagartos simpátricos, Mabuya arajara e Anolis brasiliensis, da floresta úmida da encosta da Chapada do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil, foram analisados entre setembro de 2009 e julho de 2010. Um total de 202 lagartos foi coletado, sendo 125 espécimes de Mabuya arajara e 77 de Anolis brasiliensis. M. arajara estava infectado pelo pentastomídeo Raillietiella mottae, enquanto A. brasiliensis apresentava infecção pelo nematódeo Rhabdias sp., com prevalência total de 1,6% e 28,6%, respectivamente. A intensidade média de infecção por Rhabdias sp. foi 3,63 ± 2,58 (amplitude 1-15). O tamanho e o gênero dos lagartos não influenciaram a intensidade de infecção por Rhabdias sp. A prevalência também não apresentou diferença entre machos e fêmeas em A.brasiliensis. Ambos, Anolis brasiliensis e Mabuya arajara, representam novos hospedeiros para Rhabdias sp. e Raillietiella mottae, respectivamente.Palavras-chave: lagarto, infecção pulmonar, pentastomida, nematoda.
The tropidurid lizard Tropidurus hispidus has a wide distribution in South America. However, knowledge about its helminth fauna is patchy and has been reported for only a few localities along its range of distribution. This study presents data on helminth fauna composition and parameters of infection for a population of T. hispidus from an area within the Brazilian Caatinga biome (semi-arid physiognomy). We found five nematode species within the gastrointestinal tract of lizards: Parapharyngodon sceleratus (Pharyngodonidae); Physaloptera lutzi, Physaloptera retusa and Physalopteroides venancioi (Physalopteridae); and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae). The overall prevalence was 84.2% and the mean intensity of infection was 8.5 ± 1.1. The body size of adult male lizards influenced positively the intensity of infection. The infracommunities of nematodes presented an intermediate aggregated distribution (discrepancy index; D= 0.519) and a depauperate nematode fauna. The presence of generalist parasite species has contributed to an increase in the overall richness of the component community. This sampled host population presented the highest prevalence of parasites compared with other studies on T. hispidus, but their relatively low richness can be related to the disturbed environment of the study area.
Parasitism of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus by Geckobiella sp. and by larvae of Eutrombicula alfreddugesi was examined in a mountainous area in Chapada do Araripe (07° 16' S and 39° 26' W), southern Ceará State, Brazil. Of the 56 lizards collected (26 females, 27 males, and 3 juveniles), 40 (total prevalence of 71.42%) were infested by mites. Mite-pockets were the sites most heavily infested by E. alfreddugesi larvae, while Geckobiella sp. was found uniformly distributed under scales over the host's entire body. The female specimens of T. hispidus parasitised by E. alfreddugesi had an average infestation rate of 8.57 ± 3.62, 1-27, while the males had an average infestation rate of 11.90 ± 2.63, 1-25. The female specimens parasitised by Geckobiella sp. had an average infestation rate of 5.91 ± 2.28, 1-25, while the males had an average infestation rate of 5.43 ± 1.52, 1-23. Seven specimens were also infested by eggs and immature forms of unidentified mites (average 2.28 ± 0.89, 1-7). There were no significant differences between the total prevalence of mites on adult male (70.4%) and adult female (65.4%) lizards. The body sizes of the hosts did not influence their infestation rates. The average infestation intensity by E. alfreddugesi (10.2 ± 8.7) was significantly greater than the average infestation intensity by Geckobiella sp. (5.9 ± 6.8). T. hispidus is the new host record to Geckobiella mites.
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