FUS is an aggregation-prone hnRNP involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation that aberrantly forms immunoreactive inclusion bodies in a range of neurological diseases classified as FUS-proteinopathies. Although FUS has been extensively examined, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these diseases have not yet been elucidated in detail. We previously reported that RNAi of the lncRNA hsrω altered the expression and sub-cellular localization of Drosophila FUS in the central nervous system of the fly. In order to obtain a clearer understanding of the role of hsrω in FUS toxicity, we herein drove the expression of human FUS in Drosophila eyes with and without a hsrω RNAi background. We found that hFUS was largely soluble and also able to form aggregates. As such, hFUS was toxic, inducing an aberrant eye morphology with the loss of pigmentation. The co-expression of hsrω double-stranded RNA reduced hFUS transcript levels and induced the formation of cytoplasmic non-toxic hFUS-LAMP1-insoluble inclusions. The combination of these events caused the titration of hFUS molar excess and a removal of hFUS aggregates to rescue toxicity. These results revealed the presence of a lncRNA-dependent pathway involved in the management of aggregation-prone hnRNPs, suggesting that properly formed FUS inclusions are not toxic to cells.
Neuronal insulin resistance is a significant feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Accumulated evidence has revealed the possible neuroprotective mechanisms of antidiabetic drugs in AD. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog and an antidiabetic agent, has a benefit in improving a peripheral insulin resistance. However, the neuronal effect of liraglutide on the model of neuronal insulin resistance with Alzheimer’s formation has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study discovered that liraglutide alleviated neuronal insulin resistance and reduced beta-amyloid formation and tau hyperphosphorylation in a human neuroblostoma cell line, SH-SY5Y. Liraglutide could effectively reverse deleterious effects of insulin overstimulation. In particular, the drug reversed the phosphorylation status of insulin receptors and its major downstream signaling molecules including insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (AKT), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β). Moreover, liraglutide reduced the activity of beta secretase 1 (BACE-1) enzyme, which then decreased the formation of beta-amyloid in insulin-resistant cells. This indicated that liraglutide can reverse the defect of phosphorylation status of insulin signal transduction but also inhibit the formation of pathogenic Alzheimer’s proteins like Aβ in neuronal cells. We herein provided the possibility that the liraglutide-based therapy may be able to reduce such deleterious effects caused by insulin resistance. In view of the beneficial effects of liraglutide administration, these findings suggest that the use of liraglutide may be a promising therapy for AD with insulin-resistant condition.
Ubiquilins or UBQLNs, members of the ubiquitin-like and ubiquitin-associated domain (UBL-UBA) protein family, serve as adaptors to coordinate the degradation of specific substrates via both proteasome and autophagy pathways. The UBQLN substrates reveal great diversity and impact a wide range of cellular functions. For decades, researchers have been attempting to uncover a puzzle and understand the role of UBQLNs in human cancers, particularly in the modulation of oncogene’s stability and nucleotide excision repair. In this review, we summarize the UBQLNs’ genetic variants that are associated with the most common cancers and also discuss their reliability as a prognostic marker. Moreover, we provide an overview of the UBQLNs networks that are relevant to cancers in different ways, including cell cycle, apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, DNA repairs and miRNAs. Finally, we include a future prospective on novel ubiquilin-based cancer therapies.
In the last decade, an intriguing new paradigm of regulation has emerged in which some transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides and no coding potential, long noncoding RNA (lncRNAs), exhibit the capability to control posttranslational modifications of nonhistone proteins in both invertebrates and vertebrates. The extent of such a regulation is still largely unknown. We performed a systematic review to identify and evaluate the potential impact of lncRNAdependent methylation of nonhistone proteins. Collectively, these lncRNAs primarily act as scaffolds upon which methyltransferases (MTases) and targets are brought in proximity. In this manner, the N-MTase activity of EZH2, protein arginine-MTase 1/4/5, and SMYD2 is exploited to modulate the stability or the compartmentalization of several nonhistone proteins with roles in cell signaling, gene expression, and RNA processing. Moreover, these lncRNAs can indirectly affect the methylation of nonhistone proteins by transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulation of MTases. Strikingly, the lncRNAs/MTases/ nonhistone proteins networking seem to be relevant to carcinogenesis and neurological disorders.
Background: Mutations in the human Ubiquilin 2 gene are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with or without frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the fatal neurodegenerative disease that progressively affected neuronal cells in both brain and spinal cord. There is currently no effective therapy for these diseases. Over the last decade, researchers have focused on the potential use of natural products especially in neurodegenerative studies. Insect products have been used as traditional medicines, however, scientific information is still lacking. Fruit fly is recently used as a model organism to investigate degenerative diseases related to the nervous system because it has a short life span and produces a large number of offspring. Methods: The present study investigated the effects of honeybee products and edible insect powders on the locomotive and learning abilities, neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) structure, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in larval brains of Ubiquilinknockdown Drosophila. Results: dUbqn knockdown flies showed defects in locomotive and learning abilities accompanied with structural defects in NMJs. The results obtained revealed that the recovery of locomotive defects was significantly greater in dUbqn knockdown flies fed with coffee honey from Apis cerana (1% v/v) or Apis dorsata melittin (0.5 μg/ml) or wasp powder (2 mg/ml) than that of in untreated dUbqn knockdown flies. Furthermore, dUbqn knockdown flies fed with coffee honey showed the partial rescue of structural defects in NMJs, improved learning ability, and reduced the accumulation of ROS caused by dUbqn depletion in the brain over the untreated group. Conclusion: These results suggest that coffee honey from Apis cerana contains a neuroprotective agent that will contribute to the development of a novel treatment for ALS/FTD.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.