Aims Calmodulinopathies are rare life-threatening arrhythmia syndromes which affect mostly young individuals and are, caused by mutations in any of the three genes (CALM 1–3) that encode identical calmodulin proteins. We established the International Calmodulinopathy Registry (ICalmR) to understand the natural history, clinical features, and response to therapy of patients with a CALM-mediated arrhythmia syndrome. Methods and results A dedicated Case Report File was created to collect demographic, clinical, and genetic information. ICalmR has enrolled 74 subjects, with a variant in the CALM1 (n = 36), CALM2 (n = 23), or CALM3 (n = 15) genes. Sixty-four (86.5%) were symptomatic and the 10-year cumulative mortality was 27%. The two prevalent phenotypes are long QT syndrome (LQTS; CALM-LQTS, n = 36, 49%) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT; CALM-CPVT, n = 21, 28%). CALM-LQTS patients have extremely prolonged QTc intervals (594 ± 73 ms), high prevalence (78%) of life-threatening arrhythmias with median age at onset of 1.5 years [interquartile range (IQR) 0.1–5.5 years] and poor response to therapies. Most electrocardiograms (ECGs) show late onset peaked T waves. All CALM-CPVT patients were symptomatic with median age of onset of 6.0 years (IQR 3.0–8.5 years). Basal ECG frequently shows prominent U waves. Other CALM-related phenotypes are idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF, n = 7), sudden unexplained death (SUD, n = 4), overlapping features of CPVT/LQTS (n = 3), and predominant neurological phenotype (n = 1). Cardiac structural abnormalities and neurological features were present in 18 and 13 patients, respectively. Conclusion Calmodulinopathies are largely characterized by adrenergically-induced life-threatening arrhythmias. Available therapies are disquietingly insufficient, especially in CALM-LQTS. Combination therapy with drugs, sympathectomy, and devices should be considered.
Aims The HEart function Assessment Registry Trial in Saudi Arabia (HEARTS) is a national multicentre project, studying clinical features, management, short‐ and long‐term outcomes, and mortality predictors in patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Methods and results Our prospective registry enrolled 2610 ADHF patients admitted to 18 hospitals in Saudi Arabia between October 2009 and December 2010, and followed mortality rates until January 2013. The patients included 66% men and 85.5% Saudis, with a median age (interquartile range) of 61.4 (15) years; 64% had acute on chronic heart failure (HF), 64.1% diabetes mellitus, 70.6% hypertension, and 55.7% CAD. Exacerbating factors for hospital admission included acute coronary syndromes (37.8%), infections (20.6%), non‐compliance with low‐salt diet (25.2%), and non‐compliance with HF medications (20%). An LVEF <40% was found in 73%. In‐hospital use of evidence‐based medications was high. All‐cause cumulative mortality rates at 30 days, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years were 8.3, 13.7, 19.5, 23.5, and 24.3%, respectively. Important independent predictors of mortality were history of stroke, acute on chronic HF, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg upon presentation, estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min, and haemoglobin <10 g/dL. Conclusion Patients with ADHF in Saudi Arabia presented at a younger age and had higher rates of CAD risk factors compared with those in developed countries. Most patients had reduced LV systolic function, mostly due to ischaemic aetiology, and had poor long‐term prognosis. These findings indicate a need for nationwide primary prevention and HF disease management programmes.
CTEN/TNS4 is an oncogene in colorectal cancer (CRC), which can induce cell motility although its mechanistic basis of activity and the clinical implications of Cten expression are unknown. As Cten is in complex with integrins at focal adhesions, we hypothesised that it may interact with integrin-linked kinase (ILK). Through forced expression and knockdown of Cten in HCT116 and SW620 (respectively, showing low and high Cten expression), we showed that Cten could regulate ILK. However, inhibition of ILK after forced expression of Cten abrogated the motility-inducing effects of Cten, thereby demonstrating that the Cten-ILK interaction was functionally relevant. Combined knockdown of Cten and ILK had no additive effects on cell motility compared with knockdown of each individually. In order to investigate the clinical implications of Cten expression, a series of 462 CRCs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. High expression of Cten was associated with advanced Dukes' stage (Po0.001), poor prognosis (Po0.001) and distant metastasis (P ¼ 0.008). The role of Cten in metastasis was tested by (a) intrasplenic injection of CRC cells stably transfected with a Cten expression vector into nude mice and (b) testing a series of primary human CRCs and their metastases by immunohistochemistry. Compared with controls, mice injected with cells expressing Cten developed larger tumours in the spleen (Po0.05) and liver (Po0.05). In the human cases, compared with primary tumours, the metastatic deposits had a significantly higher frequency of nuclear localisation of Cten (P ¼ 0.002). We conclude that Cten expression is of prognostic significance in CRC, and we delineate a Cten-ILK pathway controlling cell motility and possibly promoting metastasis. Oncogene (2011Oncogene ( ) 30, 2997 doi:10.1038/onc.2011 published online 21 February 2011 Keywords: Cten; integrin-linked kinase; metastasis Introduction C-terminal tensin-like (Cten, TNS4) is a member of the Tensin gene family. This gene family comprises four members (TNS1, TNS2, TNS3 and TNS4/Cten) and their products are localised to the cytoplasmic tails of integrins at focal adhesions. Tensins have an important role in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion (Lo et al., 1994;Chen et al., 2000;Lo, 2004). Human TNS1, TNS2 and TNS3 are highly homologous at their N-and C-termini, but TNS4/ COOH-terminus tensin-like molecule (Cten) is a smaller protein, which shows C-terminus homology but does not contain the N-terminus actin-binding domain that is present in the other tensin proteins (Lo and Lo, 2002). Tensin family proteins interact with several structural and signalling molecules such as vinculin, paxillin, Src, focal adhesion kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Crk-associated substrate p130 CAS , actin as well as integrins. As Cten is a recently described gene, data about its downstream targets are sparse, although recent studies suggest that Cten signalling occurs through the Stat3 pathway (Barbie...
CTEN/TNS4 is an oncogene in colorectal cancer (CRC) which enhances cell motility although the mechanism of Cten regulation is unknown. We found an association between high Cten expression and KRAS/BRAF mutation in a series of CRC cell lines (p = 0.03) and hypothesised that Kras may regulate Cten. To test this, Kras was knocked-down (using small interfering (si)RNA) in CRC cell lines SW620 and DLD1 (high Cten expressors and mutant for KRAS). In each cell line, Kras knockdown was mirrored by down-regulation of Cten Since Kras signals through Braf, we tested the effect of Kras knockdown in CRC cell line Colo205 (which shows high Cten expression and is mutant for BRAF but wild type for KRAS). Cten levels were unaffected by Kras knockdown whilst Braf knockdown resulted in reduced Cten expression suggesting that Kras signals via Braf to regulate Cten. Quantification of Cten mRNA and protein analysis following proteasome inhibition suggested that regulation was of Cten transcription. Kras knockdown inhibited cell motility. To test whether this could be mediated through Cten, SW620 cells were co-transfected with Kras specific siRNAs and a Cten expression vector. Restoring Cten expression was able to restore cell motility despite Kras knockdown (transwell migration and wounding assay, p<0.001 for both). Since KRAS is mutated in many cancers, we investigated whether this relationship could be demonstrated in other tumour models. The experiments were repeated in the pancreatic cancer cell lines Colo357 & PSN-1(both high Cten expressors and mutant for KRAS). In both cell lines, Kras was shown to regulate Cten and forced expression of Cten was able to rescue loss of cell motility following Kras knockdown in PSN-1 (transwell migration assay, p<0.001). We conclude that, in the colon and pancreas, Cten is a downstream target of Kras and may be a mechanism through which Kras regulates of cell motility.
Background Prior acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registries in Saudi Arabia might not have accurately described the true demographics and cardiac care of patients with ACS. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of a representative sample of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Saudi Arabia. Methods We conducted a 1-month snap-shot, prospective, multi-center registry study in 50 hospitals from various health care sectors in Saudi Arabia. We followed patients for 1 month and 1 year after hospital discharge. Patients with AMI included those with or without ST-segment elevation (STEMI or NSTEMI, respectively). This program survey will be repeated every 5 years. Results Between May 2015 and January 2017, we enrolled 2233 patients with ACS (mean age was 56 [standard deviation = 13] years; 55.6% were Saudi citizens, 85.7% were men, and 65.9% had STEMI). Coronary artery disease risk factors were high; 52.7% had diabetes mellitus and 51.2% had hypertension. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) was utilized in only 5.2% of cases. Revascularization for patients with STEMI included thrombolytic therapy (29%), primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); (42.5%), neither (29%), or a pharmaco-invasive approach (3%). Non-Saudis with STEMI were less likely to undergo primary PCI compared to Saudis (35.8% vs. 48.7%; respectively, p <0.001), and women were less likely than men to achieve a door-to-balloon time of <90 min (42% vs. 65%; respectively, p = 0.003). Around half of the patients with NSTEMI did not undergo a coronary angiogram. All-cause mortality rates were 4%, 5.8%, and 8.1%, in-hospital, at 1 month, and at 1 year, respectively. These rates were significantly higher in women than in men. Conclusions There is an urgent need for primary prevention programs, improving the EMS infrastructure and utilization, and establishing organized ACS network programs. AMI care needs further improvement, particularly for women and non-Saudis.
These are the first data showing an oncogenic role for CTEN in pancreatic cancer through promotion of colony formation and cell motility. The latter may be mediated by signaling through focal adhesion kinase and inhibiting E-cadherin.
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