The Banff Working Group on Liver Allograft Pathology reviewed and discussed literature evidence regarding antibody-mediated liver allograft rejection at the 11th (Paris, France, June 5-10, 2011), 12th (Comandatuba, Brazil, August 19-23, 2013), and 13th (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, October 5-10, 2015) meetings of the Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology. Discussion continued online. The primary goal was to introduce guidelines and consensus criteria for the diagnosis of liver allograft antibody-mediated rejection and provide a comprehensive update of all Banff Schema recommendations. Included are new recommendations for complement component 4d tissue staining and interpretation, staging liver allograft fibrosis, and findings related to immunosuppression minimization. In an effort to create a single reference document, previous unchanged criteria are also included.
(Abstracted from Lancet 2018;392:2697–2704) Infertility is common and affects about 10% to 15% of couples. In such couples, 1 in 500 women has infertility due to uterine causes, with uterine agenesis (Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser [MRKH] syndrome), or due to hysterectomy, malformation, or the sequelae of infection or surgery.
Extracellular matrix (ECM) composition has an important role in determining airway structure. We postulated that ECM lung composition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients differs from that observed in smoking and nonsmoking subjects without airflow obstruction.We determined the fractional areas of elastic fibres, type-I, -III and -IV collagen, versican, decorin, biglycan, lumican, fibronectin and tenascin in different compartments of the large and small airways and lung parenchyma in 26 COPD patients, 26 smokers without COPD and 16 nonsmoking control subjects.The fractional area of elastic fibres was higher in non-obstructed smokers than in COPD and nonsmoking controls, in all lung compartments. Type-I collagen fractional area was lower in the large and small airways of COPD patients and in the small airways of non-obstructed smokers than in nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, COPD patients had lower versican fractional area in the parenchyma, higher fibronectin fractional area in small airways and higher tenascin fractional area in large and small airways compartments. In COPD patients, significant correlations were found between elastic fibres and fibronectin and lung function parameters.Alterations of the major ECM components are widespread in all lung compartments of patients with COPD and may contribute to persistent airflow obstruction.
Background and study aims Biliary strictures are frequently a challenging clinical scenario and the anatomopathological diagnosis is essential in the therapeutic management, whether for curative or palliative purposes. The acquisition of specimens is necessary since many benign diseases mimic biliopancreatic neoplasms. Endscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the traditionally used method despite the low sensitivity of biliary brush cytology and forceps biopsy. On the other hand, several studies reported good accuracy rates using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). The aim of this prospective study was to compare, the accuracy of EUS-FNA and ERCP for tissue sampling of biliary strictures. Patients and methods After performing the sample size calculation, 50 consecutive patients with indeterminate biliary strictures were included to undergo ERCP and EUS on the same sedation.The gold-standard was surgery or 6 months’ follow-up. Evaluation of the diagnostic indices (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio), concordance and adverse events among the methods were performed. Also, subtype analyses of the techniques, anatomical localization and size of the lesion were included. Results The final diagnoses reported in 50 patients were 47 malignant, 1 suspicious and 2 benign lesions. 31 lesions were extraductal and 19 intraductal, 35 were distal and 15 proximal strictures. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the sensitivity and accuracy of EUS-FNA were superior than ERCP tissue sampling (93,8 %, 94 % vs. 60,4 %, 62 %, respectively) ( P = 0.034), with similar adverse events. There was no concordance between the methods and combining both methods improved the sensitivity and accuracy for 97.9 % and 98 %, respectively. In the subtype analyses, the EUS-FNA was superior, with a higher accuracy than ERCP tissue sampling in evaluating extraductal lesions (100 % vs. 54.8 %, P = 0.019) and in those larger than 1.5 cm (95.8 % vs. 61.9 %, P = 0.031), but were similar in evaluating intraductal lesions and lesions smaller than 1.5 cm. There was no significant difference between the methods in the analyzes of proximal, distal and pancreatic lesions. Conclusion EUS-FNA is better than ERCP with brush cytology and intraductal forceps biopsy in diagnosing malignant biliary strictures, mainly in the assessment of extraductal lesions and in those larger than 1.5 cm. Combining ERCP with tissue sampling and EUS-FNA is feasible, the techniques have similar complication rates, and the combination greatly improves diagnostic accuracy.
Aims The clinical spectrum of yellow fever (YF) ranges from asymptomatic to fulminant hepatitis. During the sylvatic YF epidemic in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil in 2018, seven orthotopic liver transplantations (OLTs) were performed in our institution to treat fulminant YF hepatitis. Three patients recovered, while four patients died following OLT. The autopsy findings of all these cases are presented herein as the first description of YF in transplanted patients. Methods and results All patients were men, aged 16–40 years, without vaccination to YF virus (YFV). All organs were examined, with tissue sampling for histopathological analysis. Detection of YF virus antigens (YFV Ag) was performed with two primary antibodies (mouse polyclonal anti‐YFV antibody directed to wild strain and a goat anti‐YF virus antibody), and RT–PCR assays were utilised to detect YFV‐RNA. All the cases depicted typical findings of YF hepatitis in the engrafted liver. The main extrahepatic findings were cerebral oedema, pulmonary haemorrhage, pneumonia, acute tubular necrosis and ischaemic/reperfusion pancreatitis. Of the four cases, the YVF Ag was detected in the heart in one case, liver and testis in three cases, and the kidney and spleen in all four cases. All four cases had YF virus RNA detected by RT–PCR in the liver and in other organs. Conclusions Infection of the engrafted liver and other organs by YFV, possibly combined with major ischaemic systemic lesions, may have led to the death of four of the seven patients undergoing OLT.
A previously healthy 27-year-old female had 3 days of fever (40°C), headache, and myalgia. She had not been previously vaccinated for YF. Initial workup revealed 2,150 leukocytes/mm , 83,000 platelets/mm , AST 8462U/L and ALT 5249U/L (Figure 1). She was icteric with a heart rate of 60 bpm. The following day, a generalized seizure led to intubation, and renal failure led to hemodialysis. Transcranial doppler ultrasound showed signs of intracranial hypertension, cranial CT scan showed diffuse hypoattenuation and loss of grey-white differentiation; abdominal doppler ultrasound, and echocardiogram were normal. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE:Chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure with indication for re-transplantation. The incidence of chronic rejection remains high in the pediatric population. Although several risk factors have been implicated in adults, the prognostic factors for the evolution and reversibility of chronic rejection in pediatric liver transplantation are not known. Hence, the current study aimed to determine the factors involved in the progression or reversibility of pediatric chronic rejection by evaluating a series of chronic rejection cases following liver transplantation.METHODS:Chronic rejection cases were identified by performing liver biopsies on patients based on clinical suspicion. Treatment included maintaining high levels of tacrolimus and the introduction of mofetil mycophenolate. The children were divided into 2 groups: those with favorable outcomes and those with adverse outcomes. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors in these groups.RESULTS:Among 537 children subjected to liver transplantation, chronic rejection occurred in 29 patients (5.4%). In 10 patients (10/29, 34.5%), remission of chronic rejection was achieved with immunosuppression (favorable outcomes group). In the remaining 19 patients (19/29, 65.5%), rejection could not be controlled (adverse outcomes group) and resulted in re-transplantation (7 patients, 24.1%) or death (12 patients, 41.4%). Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ductopenia was associated with worse outcomes (risk ratio=2.08, p=0.01).CONCLUSION:The presence of ductopenia is associated with poor prognosis in pediatric patients with chronic graft rejection.
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