This paper presents an all-Mach method for two-phase inviscid flow in the presence of surface tension. A modified version of the Hartens–Lax–van Leer Contact (HLLC) solver is developed and combined for the first time with a widely used volume-of-fluid (VoF) method: the compressive interface capturing scheme for arbitrary meshes (CICSAM). This novel combination yields a scheme with both HLLC shock capturing as well as accurate liquid–gas interface tracking characteristics. It is achieved by reconstructing non-conservative (primitive) variables in a consistent manner to yield both robustness and accuracy. Liquid–gas interface curvature is computed via height functions and the convolution method. We emphasize the use of VoF in the interest of interface accuracy when modelling surface tension effects. The method is validated using a range of test-cases available in the literature. The results show flow features that are in sensible agreement with previous experimental and numerical work. In particular, the use of the HLLC-VoF combination leads to a sharp volume fraction and energy field with improved accuracy.
A novel aerodynamics reduced order model (ROM) is proposed for gust load calculations on two-and three-dimensional wing geometries at transonic flow conditions. Force estimates from sectional potential flow solutions are taken as inputs to kriging models that predict the aerodynamic loads. The kriging models are trained with coupled aeroelastic CFD calculations of two gust lengths (viz. short and long) which define a range in which the ROM is applicable. An interface is developed to handle the coupling of fluid and structure in the training simulations. The interface ensures conservative transfer of forces from the fluid to the structure and reconstruction of the fluid mesh subject to structural motion. Two test cases are put forward as a means to evaluate ROM: the FFAST Crank aerofoil and the NASA Common Research Model (CRM). In the former case, individual run cost decreased by an order of magnitude and error in the aeroelastic response never exceeded 8%. At the time of writing, the CFD calculations for the CRM case are underway.
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