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We discuss photon and test-particle orbits in the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) metric. For any value of the Hořava parameter ω, there are values of the gravitational mass M for which the metric describes a naked singularity, and this is always accompanied by a vacuum "antigravity sphere" on whose surface a test particle can remain at rest (in a zero angular momentum geodesic), and inside which no circular geodesics exist. The observational appearance of an accreting KS naked singularity in a binary system would be that of a quasi-static spherical fluid shell surrounded by an accretion disk, whose properties depend on the value of M , but are always very different from accretion disks familiar from the Kerr-metric solutions. The properties of the corresponding circular orbits are qualitatively similar to those of the Reissner-Nordström naked singularities. When event horizons are present, the orbits outside the Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole are qualitatively similar to those of the Schwarzschild metric.

The present paper is the culminating one of a series aimed to contribute to the understanding of the kinematic structures of the solar neighbourhood (SN), explaining the origin of the Local Arm and relating the moving groups with the spiral-arms resonances in the disk. With a model for the Galactic potential, with the Sun inside the spiral corotation resonance (CR), we integrate the 2D orbits of test particles distributed in birthplaces along the main spiral arms, the Local Arm, and in the axisymmetric disk. A comparison of the resulting U -V plane of the SN with that provided by Gaia DR2 confirms our previous conclusion that the moving groups of Coma Berenices, Pleiades, and Hyades are associated with the CR, and that the Hercules stream is formed by the bulk of highorder inner Lindblad resonances. The kinematic structures result from stellar orbits trapped by the spiral resonances in a timespan of ∼ 1 Gyr, indicating the long-living nature of the spiral structure and challenging recent arguments in favor of short-lived structures originated from incomplete phase mixing in the Galactic disk. As a byproduct, our simulations give some insight into the birthplaces of the stars presently located in the SN; the majority of stars of the main moving groups and the Hercules stream were likely born in the Local Arm, while stars of the Sirius group possibly originated from the outer segment of the Sagittarius-Carina arm. We also propose the spiral resonances as the dynamical origin for the diagonal ridges in the Galactic distribution of rotation velocities.

The Local arm of the Milky Way, a short spiral feature near the Sun whose existence is known for decades, was recently observed in detail with different tracers. Many efforts have been dedicated to elaborate plausible hypotheses concerning the origin of the main spiral arms of the Galaxy; however, up to now, no specific mechanism for the origin of the Local arm was proposed. Here we explain, for the first time, the Local arm as an outcome of the spiral corotation resonance, which traps arm tracers and the Sun inside it. We show that the majority of maser sources belonging to the Local arm, together with the Sun, evolve inside the corotation resonance, never crossing the main spiral arms but instead oscillating in the region between them. This peculiar behavior of the Sun could have numerous consequences to our understanding of the local kinematics of stars, the Galactic Habitable Zone, and the Solar System evolution.

Context. At super-Eddington rates accretion flows onto black holes have been described as slim (aspect ratio H/R 1) or thick (H/R > 1) discs, also known as tori or (Polish) doughnuts. The relation between the two descriptions has never been established, but it was commonly believed that at sufficiently high accretion rates slim discs inflate, becoming thick. Aims. We wish to establish under what conditions slim accretion flows become thick. Methods. We use analytical equations, numerical 1 + 1 schemes, and numerical radiative MHD codes to describe and compare various accretion flow models at very high accretion rates. Results. We find that the dominant effect of advection at high accretion rates precludes slim discs becoming thick. Conclusions. At super-Eddington rates accretion flows around black holes can always be considered slim rather than thick.

Context. Resonances in the stellar orbital motion under perturbations from the spiral arm structure can play an important role in the evolution of the disks of spiral galaxies. The epicyclic approximation allows the determination of the corresponding resonant radii on the equatorial plane (in the context of nearly circular orbits), but is not suitable in general. Aims. We expand the study of resonant orbits by analysing stellar motions perturbed by spiral arms with Gaussian-shaped groove profiles without any restriction on the stellar orbital configurations, and we expand the concept of Lindblad (epicyclic) resonances for orbits with large radial excursions. Methods. We define a representative plane of initial conditions, which covers the whole phase space of the system. Dynamical maps on representative planes of initial conditions are constructed numerically in order to characterize the phase-space structure and identify the precise location of the co-rotation and Lindblad resonances. The study is complemented by the construction of dynamical power spectra, which provide the identification of fundamental oscillatory patterns in the stellar motion. Results. Our approach allows a precise description of the resonance chains in the whole phase space, giving a broader view of the dynamics of the system when compared to the classical epicyclic approach. We generalize the concept of Lindblad resonances and extend it to cases of resonant orbits with large radial excursions, even for objects in retrograde motion. The analysis of the solar neighbourhood shows that, depending on the current azimuthal phase of the Sun with respect to the spiral arms, a star with solar kinematic parameters (SSP) may evolve in dynamically distinct regions, either inside the stable co-rotation resonance or in a chaotic zone. Conclusions. Our approach contributes to quantifying the domains of resonant orbits and the degree of chaos in the whole Galactic phase-space structure. It may serve as a starting point to apply these techniques to the investigation of clumps in the distribution of stars in the Galaxy, such as kinematic moving groups.

The aim of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the stellar velocity distribution in the solar neighborhood (SN). We propose that the structures on the U -V planes, known as the moving groups, can be mainly explained by the spiral arms perturbations. The applied model of the Galactic disk and spiral arms, with the parameters defined by observational data and with pattern speed Ω p =28.0 km s −1 kpc −1 , is the same that allowed us to explain the origin of the Local Arm and the Sun's orbit trapped inside the corotation resonance (CR). We show that the U -V picture of the SN consists of the main component, associated with the CR, and the inner and outer structures, which we could associate with the Hercules and Sirius streams, respectively. The Coma-Berenices and Hyades-Pleiades groups and the Sun itself belong to the main part. The substructures of Hercules are formed mainly by the nearby 8/1, 12/1, and even 6/1 inner Lindblad resonances, while Sirius is shaped by the bulk of overlapping outer Lindblad resonances, -8/1, -12/1, -16/1, which are stuck to the CR. This richness in resonances only exists near corotation, which should be of the spiral arms, not of the Galactic bar, whose stable corotation zone is far away from the Sun. The model's predictions of the velocity distribution match qualitatively and quantitatively the distribution provided by Gaia DR2.

Context. Observational data indicate that the Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy. Computation facilities and availability of data from Galactic surveys stimulate the appearance of models of the Galactic structure, however further efforts are needed to build dynamical models containing both spiral arms and the central bar/bulge. Aims. We expand the study of the stellar dynamics in the Galaxy by adding the bar/bulge component to a model with spiral arms introduced in one of our previous publications. The model is tested by applying it to the solar neighbourhood, where observational data are more precise. Methods. We model analytically the potential of the Galaxy to derive the force field in its equatorial plane. The model comprises an axisymmetric disc derived from the observed rotation curve, four spiral arms with Gaussian-shaped groove profiles, and a classical elongated/oblate ellipsoidal bar/bulge structure. The parameters describing the bar/bulge are constrained by observations and the stellar dynamics, and their possible limits are determined. Results. A basic model results in a bar of 2.9 kpc in length, with a mass of the order of a few 10 9 M (which does not include the axisymmetric part of the bulge, which has a mass of about 10 10 M ). The size and orientation of the bar are also restricted by the position of masers with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). The bar's rotation speed is constrained to Ω bar < 50 km s −1 kpc −1 taking into account the allowed mass range. Conclusions. We conclude that our basic model is compatible with observations and with the dynamical constraints. The model explains simultaneously the bulk of the main moving groups, associated here with the spiral corotation resonance, and the Hercules stream, associated with several inner high-order spiral resonances; in particular, with the 8/1 resonance. From the dynamical constraints on the bar's angular speed, it is unlikely that the bar's outer Lindblad resonance (OLR) lies near the solar circle; moreover, its proximity would compromise the stability of the local arm structure.

We consider the three-dimensional bounded motion of a test particle around razor-thin disk configurations, by focusing on the adiabatic invariance of the vertical action associated with disk-crossing orbits. We find that it leads to an approximate third integral of motion predicting envelopes of the form $Z(R)\propto[\Sigma(R)]^{-1/3}$, where $R$ is the radial galactocentric coordinate, $Z$ is the z-amplitude (vertical amplitude) of the orbit and $\Sigma$ represents the surface mass density of the thin disk. This third integral, which was previously formulated for the case of flattened 3D configurations, is tested for a variety of trajectories in different thin-disk models.Comment: Version accepted for publication at Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. Replaces arxiv version arxiv:1206.6501. The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10569-016-9705-

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