Occurrence of multiple whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus in the Atlantic Ocean is reported for the first time from near a sunken ferry off the Paraná coast in south-eastern Brazil. This occurrence is hypothesized to have been caused by either a human introduction or a remarkably long oceanic displacement.
A single Pomacanthus maculosus was filmed during a scuba diving survey on a rocky reef from southern Brazil. The body shape and coloration pattern confirmed the species identification. The biological and ecological characteristics of P. maculosus and the long distance of Brazil from its original distribution strongly suggest of an anthropogenic pathway of dispersion.
Artificial reefs (ARs) have been deployed on the inner shelf of Paraná, Southeast Brazil, as protection against destructive trawling activities, and to offer habitat for local fauna for recovery of biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary characterization of the ichthyoplankton community associated with both artificial and natural reefs in the Currais Archipelago, and perform a comparison of fish larvae composition between ARs and nearby unconsolidated substrate. Two sampling methods were used, light traps and a plankton net. A total of 12 families and 14 species were identified, expanding the total species list in the area by eight species and three families. Differences among assemblages on ARs and unconsolidated substrate indicate that ARs seem to be effective attractors to fish larvae. Particular attention is drawn in regard to the "attractor effect" for exotic species that do not naturally reside in the area, such as Omobranchus punctatus. The large abundance of fish eggs on ARs suggests that these artificial structures can improve local production. These results are the first step needed to better define guidelines for sustainable use and management of ARs and Currais Archipelago, a Marine National Park.
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This study presents the first record of the cordiform echinoid Plagiobrissus grandis (Gmelin, 1791) (Echinoidea: Spatangoida: Brissidae) in Paraná’s shallow inner shelf, in addition to a brief description of its location, body measurements, sex determination, and reproductive status. Two specimens were recorded between 2015 (bycatch by artisanal fishing) and 2016 (observed by scuba diving). The only specimen – with severe signs of weakness – captured was donated to Associação MarBrasil and kept in an aquarium for rehabilitation (8 days), where it was possible to observe digging movements, burying skills (partially), and camouflage or covering behavior. The organism was sent to the UNESPAR campus of Paranaguá and was photographed, measured (length: 155.65 mm, width: 118.93 mm, and maximum test height: 41.31 mm), fixed, and properly preserved. Digitized images of the histological preparation showed that it was a female in the recovery stage (or nutritional reserve) of the reproductive cycle. Regardless of their limitations, the current records for the Brissidae family in South Atlantic are still concentrated on the Brazilian coast, contributing to the understanding of zoogeographic, ecological, morphophysiological, and behavioral aspects of the spatangoid echinoids.
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