RESUMO As hérnias inguinais são um problema frequente e o seu reparo representa a cirurgia mais comumente realizada por cirurgiões gerais. Nos últimos anos, novos princípios, produtos e técnicas têm mudado a rotina dos cirurgiões que precisam reciclar conhecimentos e aperfeiçoar novas habilidades. Além disso, antigos conceitos sobre indicação cirúrgica e riscos de complicações vêm sendo reavaliados. Visando criar um guia de orientações sobre o manejo das hérnias inguinais em pacientes adultos, a Sociedade Brasileira de Hérnias reuniu um grupo de experts com objetivo de revisar diversos tópicos, como indicação cirúrgica, manejo perioperatório, técnicas cirúrgicas, complicações e orientações pós-operatórias.
ObjectivesEven though several effective vaccines are available to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, wide disparities in vaccine distribution, and vaccine acceptance rates between high- and low-income countries appear to be major threats toward achieving population immunity. Our global descriptive study aims to inform policymakers on factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers (HCWs) in 12 countries, based on income index. We also looked for possible predictors of vaccine acceptance among the study sample.MethodsA structured questionnaire prepared after consultation with experts in the field and guided by the “Report of the SAGE working group on vaccine hesitancy” was administered among 2,953 HCWs. Upon obtaining informed consent, apart from demographic information, we collected information on trust in vaccines and health authorities, and agreement to accept a COVID-19 vaccine.ResultsAlthough 69% of the participants agreed to accept a vaccine, there was high heterogeneity in agreement between HCWs in low and lower-middle income countries (L-LMICs) and upper-middle- and high-income countries (UM-HICs), with acceptance rates of 62 and 75%, respectively. Potential predictors of vaccine acceptance included being male, 50 years of age or older, resident of an UM-HIC, updating self about COVID-19 vaccines, greater disease severity perception, greater anxiety of contracting COVID-19 and concern about side effects of vaccines.ConclusionsCOVID-19 vaccine acceptance among HCWs in L-LMICs was considerably low as compared to those from UM-HICs. The lowest vaccine acceptance rates were among HCWs from the African continent. This underlines the need for the implementation of country-specific vaccine promotion strategies, with special focus on increasing vaccine supply in L-LMICs.
This study evaluated the effect of the combination of three different onlay preparation designs and two restorative materials on the stress distribution, using 3D-finite element analysis. Six models of first lower molars were created according to three preparation designs: non-retentive (nRET), traditional with occlusal isthmus reduction (IST), and traditional without occlusal isthmus reduction (wIST); and according to two restorative materials: lithium-disilicate (LD) and nanoceramic resin (NR). A 600 N axial load was applied at the central fossa. All solids were considered isotropic, homogeneous, and linearly elastic. A static linear analysis was performed, and the Maximum Principal Stress (MPS) criteria were used to evaluate the results and compare the stress in MPa on the restoration, cement layer, and tooth structure (enamel and dentin). A novel statistical approach was used for quantitative analysis of the finite element analysis results. On restoration and cement layer, nRET showed a more homogeneous stress distribution, while the highest stress peaks were calculated for LD onlays (restoration: 69–110; cement layer: 10.2–13.3). On the tooth structure, the material had more influence, with better results for LD (27–38). It can be concluded that nRET design showed the best mechanical behavior compared to IST and wIST, with LD being more advantageous for tooth structure and NR for the restoration and cement layer.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the failure probability of two types of abutment screws after compressive load and to analyze the stress distribution with finite element method. Sixty (60) single-tooth implant restorations were assembled on titanium implants (e-fix, A.S. Technology - Titanium Fix). The groups were divided into Conventional screw (Screw neck 1.5 ø mm) and Experimental screw (Screw neck constricted with 1.2 ø mm). Specimens were subjected to single load to failure with compressive test according ISO 14801. The fractured specimens were subjected to stereomicroscopy for measurement of remaining screws inside the implant and characterization of fracture origin. Representative specimens were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy. For finite element method (FEM), an identical 3D model of the two in vitro test groups were used with similar conditions (30º, 100 N load). The stress in the abutment screw was analyzed by von-Mises criteria. The results of strength means were 4132.5 ± 76 MPa and 4528.2 ± 127.2 for conventional and experimental groups, respectively. During microscopy, the mean (mm) of the remaining screw piece inside the implants were 0.97 ± 0.23 and 1.32 ± 0.12 for conventional and experimental groups, respectively. In FEM, the conventional group showed stress concentered in an unfavorable region (peak of 39.23 MPa), while the experimental group showed more stress areas but less concentration than the conventional group (36.6 MPa). In using the tested experimental geometry, the abutment screw can have its strength improved, and the origin of failure can be more favorable to clinical resolution.
The loss of dental structure caused by endodontic treatment is responsible for a decrease in tooth resistance, which increases susceptibility to fracture. Therefore, it is important that minimally invasive treatments be performed to preserve the dental structure and increase the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth. To evaluate under axial loads, using the finite element method, the stress distribution in endodontically treated molars restored with both transfixed or vertical glass fiber posts (GFP) and resin composite. An endodontically treated molar 3D-model was analyzed using finite element analyses under four different conditions, class II resin composite (G1, control model), vertical glass fiber post (G2), transfixed glass fiber posts (G3) and vertical and transfixed glass fiber posts (G4). Ideal contacts were considered between restoration/resin composite and resin composite/tooth. An axial load (300 N) was applied to the occlusal surface. The resulting tensile stresses were calculated for the enamel and dentin tissue from five different viewports (occlusal, buccal, palatal, mesial and distal views). According to the stress maps, similar stress trends were observed, regardless of the glass fiber post treatment. In addition, for the G1 model (without GFP), a high-stress magnitude can be noticed in the proximal faces of enamel (7.7 to 14 MPa) and dentin (2.1 to 3.3 MPa) tissue. The use of transfixed glass fiber post is not indicated to reduce the stresses, under axial loads, in both enamel and dentin tissue in endodontically treated molar with a class II cavity.
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