Assessment of long-term outcomes is essential in brain surgery for epilepsy, which is an irreversible intervention for a chronic condition. Excellent short-term results of resective epilepsy surgery have been established, but less is known about long-term outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on this topic. To provide evidence-based estimates of long-term results of various types of epilepsy surgery and to identify sources of variation in results of published studies, we searched Medline, Index Medicus, the Cochrane database, bibliographies of reviews, original articles and book chapters to identify articles published since 1991 that contained > or =20 patients of any age, undergoing resective or non-resective epilepsy surgery, and followed for a mean/median of > or =5 years. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and extracted data, resolving disagreements through discussion. Seventy-six articles fulfilled our eligibility criteria, of which 71 reported on resective surgery (93%) and five (7%) on non-resective surgery. There were no randomized trials and only six studies had a control group. Some articles contributed more than one study, yielding 83 studies of which 78 dealt with resective surgery and five with non-resective surgery. Forty studies (51%) of resective surgery referred to temporal lobe surgery, 25 (32%) to grouped temporal and extratemporal surgery, seven (9%) to frontal surgery, two (3%) to grouped extratemporal surgery, two (3%) to hemispherectomy, and one (1%) each to parietal and occipital surgery. In the non-resective category, three studies reported outcomes after callosotomy and two after multiple subpial transections. The median proportion of long-term seizure-free patients was 66% with temporal lobe resections, 46% with occipital and parietal resections, and 27% with frontal lobe resections. In the long term, only 35% of patients with callosotomy were free of most disabling seizures, and 16% with multiple subpial transections remained free of all seizures. The year of operation, duration of follow-up and outcome classification system were most strongly associated with outcomes. Almost all long-term outcome studies describe patient cohorts without controls. Although there is substantial variation in outcome definition and methodology among the studies, consistent patterns of results emerge for various surgical interventions after adjusting for sources of heterogeneity. The long-term (> or =5 years) seizure free rate following temporal lobe resective surgery was similar to that reported in short-term controlled studies. On the other hand, long-term seizure freedom was consistently lower after extratemporal surgery and palliative procedures.
Assessment of long-term outcomes is essential in brain surgery for epilepsy. Little information exists on long-term non-seizure outcomes after epilepsy surgery. We perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on this topic. Our aim was to provide evidence-based estimates of antiepileptic drug, psychosocial, neuropsychological and mortality long-term outcomes following epilepsy surgery, and to identify sources of variation in published results. We searched Medline, Index Medicus, the Cochrane database, bibliographies of reviews, original articles, and book chapters, to identify articles published from 1991 to 2005, containing > or =20 patients of any age, undergoing resective or non-resective epilepsy surgery, and followed for a mean/median of > or =5 years. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and extracted data, resolving disagreements through discussion. Standard meta-analytical techniques were used to pool data. Of the 159 potentially eligible articles reviewed in full-text, 35 (22%) fulfilled eligibility criteria; 6 (17%) were controlled studies; 15 (36%) explored antiepileptic drug outcome; 6 (17%) explored mortality; 11 (31%) reported psychosocial outcomes; and 7 (20%) explored neuropsychological outcomes. On an average, 14% [95% confidence interval (CI(95)) = 11-17] of the patients with temporal lobe surgery achieved long-term antiepileptic drug (AED) discontinuation, 50% (CI(95) = 45-55) achieved monotherapy, and 33% remained on polytherapy (CI(95 =) 29-38). In analyses including all types of surgery, on average, 20% (CI(95) = 18-23) achieved long-term AED discontinuation, while 41% (CI(95) = 37-45) were on monotherapy and 31% (CI(95) = 27-35) remained on polytherapy. Children achieved better AED outcomes than adults. Seizure freedom after surgery was associated with lower mortality, but inconsistent mortality outcomes precluded making strong inferences. Non-controlled studies consistently reported improved long-term psychosocial outcomes, but the effect was less clear in controlled studies. Intelligence was unchanged by surgery, but long-term memory outcomes were associated with seizure freedom and side of temporal lobe resection. Few long-term, controlled studies exist. Longer follow-up was associated with lower rates of AED discontinuation, reflecting lower seizure-free rates over time. Cognitive and psychosocial outcomes were similar to those of short-term studies, and the results were influenced by the presence of controls.
Hypothermia was able to suppress seizure activity in patients with SE refractory to traditional therapies with minimal morbidity. It appears promising as an alternative or an adjunct to anesthetic doses of other agents, but requires further study to better evaluate its safety and efficacy.
Introduction: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can trigger immune activation sufficient to induce the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This may promote both extra-cerebral organ dysfunction and delayed cerebral ischemia, contributing to worse outcome. We ascertained the frequency and predictors of SIRS after spontaneous SAH, and determined whether degree of early systemic inflammation predicted the occurrence of vasospasm and clinical outcome.
Object Studies using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a large ICD-9–based (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) administrative database, to analyze aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have been limited by an inability to control for SAH severity and the use of unverified outcome measures. To address these limitations, the authors developed and validated a surrogate marker for SAH severity, the NIS-SAH Severity Score (NIS-SSS; akin to Hunt and Hess [HH] grade), and a dichotomous measure of SAH outcome, the NIS-SAH Outcome Measure (NIS-SOM; akin to modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score). Methods Three separate and distinct patient cohorts were used to define and then validate the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM. A cohort (n = 148,958, the “model population”) derived from the 1998–2009 NIS was used for developing the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM models. Diagnoses most likely reflective of SAH severity were entered into a regression model predicting poor outcome; model coefficients of significant factors were used to generate the NIS-SSS. Nationwide Inpatient Sample codes most likely to reflect a poor outcome (for example, discharge disposition, tracheostomy) were used to create the NIS-SOM. Data from 716 patients with SAH (the “validation population”) treated at the authors' institution were used to validate the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM against HH grade and mRS score, respectively. Lastly, 147,395 patients (the “assessment population”) from the 1998–2009 NIS, independent of the model population, were used to assess performance of the NIS-SSS in predicting outcome. The ability of the NIS-SSS to predict outcome was compared with other common measures of disease severity (All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group [APR-DRG], All Payer Severity-adjusted DRG [APS-DRG], and DRG). Results The NIS-SSS significantly correlated with HH grade, and there was no statistical difference between the abilities of the NIS-SSS and HH grade to predict mRS-based outcomes. As compared with the APR-DRG, APSDRG, and DRG, the NIS-SSS was more accurate in predicting SAH outcome (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.69, 0.71, 0.71, and 0.79, respectively). A strong correlation between NIS-SOM and mRS was found, with an agreement and kappa statistic of 85% and 0.63, respectively, when poor outcome was defined by an mRS score > 2 and 95% and 0.84 when poor outcome was defined by an mRS score > 3. Conclusions Data in this study indicate that in the analysis of NIS data sets, the NIS-SSS is a valid measure of SAH severity that outperforms previous measures of disease severity and that the NIS-SOM is a valid measure of SAH outcome. It is critically important that outcomes research in SAH using administrative data sets incorporate the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM to adjust for neurology-specific disease severity.
Neurological events, manifesting most often as encephalopathy, occurred in almost one-third of patients after LT. Those suffering from HE at the time of LT may be more vulnerable to the metabolic stresses of surgery and the neurotoxicity of the drugs used, and were at highest risk for such complications.
Introduction-Hyponatremia frequently complicates acute brain injury and may precipitate neurological worsening by promoting cerebral edema. An increase in brain water may be better managed through water excretion than with fluid restriction or hypertonic fluids. Vasopressinreceptor antagonists such as conivaptan, which promote free water excretion, may be ideal agents to treat this common and potentially serious disorder.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.