BackgroundMembers of the Anostomidae family provide an interesting model system for the study of the influence of repetitive elements on genome composition, mainly because they possess numerous heterochromatic segments and a peculiar system of female heterogamety that is restricted to a few species of the Leporinus genus. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify important new repetitive DNA elements in Anostomidae through restriction enzyme digestion, followed by cloning, characterisation and chromosome mapping of this fragment. To identify repetitive elements in other Leporinus species and expand on studies of repetitive elements in Anostomidae, hybridisation experiments were also performed using previously described probes of LeSpeI repetitive elements.ResultsThe 628-base pair (bp) LeSpeII fragment was hybridised to metaphase cells of L. elongatus individuals as well as those of L. macrocephalus, L. obtusidens, L. striatus, L. lacustris, L. friderici, Schizodon borellii and S. isognathus. In L. elongatus, both male and female cells contained small clusters of LeSpeII repetitive elements dispersed on all of the chromosomes, with enrichment near most of the terminal portions of the chromosomes. In the female sex chromosomes of L. elongatus (Z2,Z2/W1W2), however, this repeated element was absent. In the remaining species, a dispersed pattern of hybridisation was observed on all chromosomes irrespective of whether or not they were sex chromosomes. The repetitive element LeSpeI produced positive hybridisations signals only in L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens, i.e., species with differentiated sex chromosomes. In the remaining species, the LeSpeI element did not produce hybridisation signals.ConclusionsResults are discussed in terms of the effects of repetitive sequences on the differentiation of the Anostomidae genome, especially with respect to sex chromosome evolution. LeSpeII showed hybridisation patterns typical of Long Interspersed Elements (LINEs). The differential distribution of this element may be linked to sex chromosome differentiation in L. elongatus species. The relationship between sex chromosome specificity and the LeSpeI element is confirmed in the species L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens.
In this study, phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses of populations identified as Hypostomus strigaticeps from the upper Paraná River basin were conducted in order to test whether these different populations comprises cryptic species or structured populations and to assess their genetic variability. The sequences of the mitochondrial DNA ATP sintetase (subunits 6/8) of 27 specimens from 10 populations (one from Mogi-Guaçu River, five from Paranapanema River, three from Tietê River and one from Peixe River) were analyzed. The phylogeographic analysis showed the existence of eight haplotypes (A-H), and despite the ancestral haplotype includes only individuals from the Tietê River basin, the distribution of H. strigaticeps was not restricted to this basin. Haplotypes A, B and F were the most frequent. Haplotypes D, E, F, G, and H were present in the sub-basin of Paranapanema, two (A and B) were present in the sub-basin of the Tietê River, one (C) was exclusively distributed in the sub-basin of the Peixe River, and one (B) was also present in the sub-basin of the Grande River. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the populations of H. strigaticeps indeed form a monophyletic unit comprising two lineages: TG, with representatives from the Tietê, Mogi-Guaçu and Peixe Rivers; and PP, with specimens from the Paranapanema River. The observed degree of genetic divergence within the TG and PP lineages was 0.1% and 0.2%, respectively, whereas the genetic divergence between the two lineages themselves was approximately 1%. The results of the phylogenetic analysis do not support the hypothesis of existence of crypt species and the phylogeographic analysis confirm the presence of H. strigaticeps in other sub-basins of the upper Paraná River: Grande, Peixe, and Paranapanema sub-basins.Neste estudo, foram conduzidas análises filogenéticas e filogeográficas de populações identificadas como Hypostomus strigaticeps na bacia do alto rio Paraná a fim de testar se essas populações compreendem espécies crípticas ou populações estruturadas e avaliar a variabilidade genética das mesmas. Foram analisadas sequências do DNA mitocondrial ATP sintetase (subunidades 6/8) de 27 espécimes de 10 populações (uma do rio Mogi-Guaçu, cinco do rio Paranapanema, três do rio Tietê e uma do rio do Peixe). A análise filogeográfica mostrou a existência de oito haplótipos (A-H), e apesar do haplótipo ancestral incluir apenas indivíduos da bacia do rio Tietê, a distribuição de H. strigaticeps não se restringe a esta bacia. Os haplótipos A, B e F foram os mais frequentes. D, E, F, G e H estão presentes na sub-bacia do rio Paranapanema, dois (A e B) estão presentes na sub-bacia do rio Tietê, um (C) está exclusivamente distribuído na sub-bacia do rio do Peixe, e um (B) também está presente na sub-bacia do rio Grande. A análise filogenética mostrou que as populações de H. strigaticeps realmente formam uma unidade monofilética que compreende duas linhagens: TG, com representantes do rio Tietê, rio Mogi-Guaçu e rio do Peixe, e PP, com espécimes do rio Paranapa...
Resumo: No presente trabalho, visamos ampliar discussões acerca das diferentes faces da interação Universidade-Escola, com base na apresentação de relatos de experiências sobre o Projeto Primeiros Passos na Ciência e em reflexões teóricas sobre o contexto universitário, motivadas pela prática vivenciada. O projeto em questão foi desenvolvido por alunos de pósgraduação em Ciências Biológicas (Biologia Celular e Molecular) da UNESP, Campus de Rio Claro-SP em parceria com a Escola Estadual Prof. Marciano de Toledo Piza, de ensino médio, da cidade de Rio Claro, estado de São Paulo. Este projeto teve o objetivo de introduzir o aluno do Ensino Médio no cotidiano da pesquisa universitária na área de Biologia Celular e Molecular, com a expectativa de promover a aproximação destes alunos com o desenvolvimento do conhecimento científico e o ambiente universitário. Com a realização desse projeto, a Universidade teve a chance de adentrar no contexto dos alunos de Educação Básica, mais especificamente do Ensino Médio público. Esses novos conhecimentos podem criar a possibilidade de um futuro diferente, com mais conhecimentos científicos e instigando a reflexão a partir da rotina da Universidade e seu contexto. A experiência resultou na divulgação científica, no contato do aluno do Ensino Médio com o método científico e toda a técnica e objetividade que dele derivam, ampliando os laços comunidade-universidade.Abstract: In the present study, we intend to expand the discussion about different approaches of the University-School interaction, based on the presentation of an account of experiences with the First Steps in Science Project and theoretical reflections on the University context motivated by the lived experience. The project in question was developed by graduate students in Biological Sciences (Cell and Molecular Biology) at UNESP, Rio Claro/SP (Brazil), in partnership with Escola Estadual Prof. Marciano de Toledo Piza a public high school in the city of Rio Claro, State of São Paulo. This project had the objective of introducing high school students to the routine of university research in the area of Cell and Molecular Biology, with the expectation of promoting the approximation of these students with the development of scientific knowledge and the university environment. With the realization of this project, the University had the opportunity to better understand the primary education context of the students, specifically within public high schools. This new knowledge can create the possibility of a different future, with more scientific properties and instigating the reflection from the routine of the University and its context. The experience resulted in scientific dissemination, high school students' contact with the scientific method, and all the technique and objectivity derived from it, expanding community-university ties.
The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world's largest fish families. Cytogenetic studies conducted in the family showed that among 90 species analyzed the diploid number ranges from 2n=38 in Ancistrus sp. to 2n=96 in Hemipsilichthys gobio Luetken, 1874. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to determine the chromosomal localization of the 18S rDNA gene in four suckermouth armoured catfishes: Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919), Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril, 1995), Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828) and Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758). All species analyzed showed one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sequences, as observed in the previous Ag-NORs analyses. The presence of size and numerical polymorphism was observed and discussed, with proposing a hypothesis of the Ag-NOR evolution in Loricariidae.
The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908), H. prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758), and H. prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) and three have multiple Ag-NORs (H. ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), H. prope iheringi (Regan, 1908), and H. strigaticeps (Regan, 1908)). In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed.
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