Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis NASTPD13 used herein as a source for thermostable alkaline xylanase were isolated from Paudwar Hot Springs, Nepal. NASTPD13 cultured at 60°C, pH 7 and in presence of inorganic (ammonium sulfate) or organic (yeast extract) nitrogen sources, produced maximum xylanase enzyme. Xylanase production in the cultures was monitored by following the ability of culture media to hydrolyze beech wood xylan producing xylooligosaccharide and xylose by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The extracellular xylanase was isolated from optimized A. kamchatkensis NASTPD13 cultures by ammonium sulfate (80%) precipitation; the enriched xylanase preparation was dialyzed and purified using Sephadex G100 column chromatography. The purified xylanaseshowed 11-fold enrichment with a specific activity of 33 U/mg and molecular weight were37 kDa based on SDS-PAGE and PAGE-Zymography. The optimum pH and temperature of purified xylanase was 9.0 and 65°C respectively retainingmore than 50% of its maximal activity over a broad range of pH (6–9) and temperature (30–65°C). With beech wood xylan, the enzyme showed Km 0.7 mg/ml and Vmax 66.64 μM/min/mg The xylanase described herein is a secretory enzyme produced in large quantities by NASTPD13 and is a novel thermostable, alkaline xylanase with potential biotechnological applications.
Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis NASTPD13 isolated from Paudwar hot spring of Myagdi, Nepal, upon morphological and biochemical analysis revealed to be Gram-positive, straight or slightly curved, rod-shaped, spore-forming, catalase, and oxidase-positive facultative anaerobes. It grows over a wide range of pH (5.0-11) and temperature (37-75°C), which showed growth in different reduced carbon sources such as starch raffinose, glucose, fructose, inositol, trehalose, sorbitol, mellobiose, and mannitol in aerobic conditions. Furthermore, the partial sequence obtained upon sequencing showed 99% sequence similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence with A. kamchatkensis JW/VK-KG4 and was suggested to be Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis. Moreover, whole-genome analysis of NASTPD13 revealed 2,866,796 bp genome with a G+C content of 41.6%. Analysis of the genome revealed the presence of 102 RNA genes, which includes sequences coding for 19 rRNA and 79 tRNA genes. While the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NASTPD13 showed high similarity (>99%) to those of A. kamchatkensis JW/VK-KG4, RAST analysis of NASTPD13 genome suggested that A. kamchatkensis G10 is actually the closest neighbor in terms of sequence similarity. The genome annotation by RAST revealed various genes encoding glycoside hydrolases supporting that it can utilize several reduced carbon sources as observed and these genes could be important for carbohydrate-related industries. Xylanase pathway, particularly the genomic region encoding key enzymes for xylan depolymerization and xylose metabolism, further confirmed the presence of the complete gene in xylan metabolism. In addition, the complete xylose utilization gene locus analysis of NASTPD13 genome revealed all including D-xylose transport ATP-binding protein XylG and XylF, the xylose isomerase encoding gene XylA, and the gene XylB coding for a xylulokinase supported the fact that the isolate contains a complete set of genes related to xylan degradation, pentose transport, and metabolism. The results of the present study suggest that the isolated A. kamchatkensis NASTPD13 containing xylanase-producing genes could be useful in lignocellulosic biomass-utilizing industries where pentose polymers could also be utilized along with the hexose polymers.
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