Tracing criminal ties and mining evidence from a large network to begin a crime case analysis has been difficult for criminal investigators due to large numbers of nodes and their complex relationships. In this paper, trust networks using blind carbon copy (BCC) emails were formed. We show that our new shortest paths network search algorithm combining shortest paths and network centrality measures can isolate and identify criminals' connections within a trust network. A group of BCC emails out of 1,887,305 Enron email transactions were isolated for this purpose. The algorithm uses two central nodes, most influential and middle man, to extract a shortest paths trust network.
Extracting communities using existing community detection algorithms yields dense sub-networks that are difficult to analyse. Extracting a smaller sample that embodies the relationships of a list of suspects is an important part of the beginning of an investigation. In this paper, we present the efficacy of our shortest paths network search algorithm (SPNSA) that begins with an 'algorithm feed', a small subset of nodes of particular interest, and builds an investigative sub-network. The algorithm feed may consist of known criminals or suspects, or persons of influence. This sets our approach apart from existing community detection algorithms. We apply the SPNSA on the Enron Dataset of e-mail communications starting with those convicted of money laundering in relation to the collapse of Enron as the algorithm feed. The algorithm produces sparse and small sub-networks that could feasibly identify a list of persons and relationships to be further investigated. In contrast, we show that identifying sub-networks of interest using either community detection algorithms or a k-Neighbourhood approach produces sub-networks of much larger size and complexity. When the 18 top managers of Enron were used as the algorithm feed, the resulting subnetwork identified 4 convicted criminals that were not managers and so not part of the algorithm feed. We also directly tested the SPNSA by removing one of the convicted criminals from the algorithm feed and re-running the algorithm; in 5 out of 9 cases the left out criminal occurred in the resulting sub-network.
The paper aims to identify behavioural theories that influence information security policies compliance behaviour. A systematic review of empirical studies from eleven online databases (ACM digital library, Emerald Insight, IEEE Xplore digital library, Springer link, Science direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Oxford academic journals, SAGE journals, Taylor & Francis and Wiley online library) are conducted. This review identified 29 studies met its criterion for inclusion. The investigated theories were extracted and analysed. Total of 19 theories have been identified and studied concerning to security policy compliance behaviour. The result indicated that the most established theories in information security compliance behaviour studies are the Theory of Planned Behavior and Protection Motivation theory. Meanwhile, General Deterrence Theory, Neutralization theory, Social Bond Theory / Social Control Theory are used moderately in this research area. Less explored theories are namely Self Determination Theory, Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Involvement Theory, Health belief model, Theory of Interpersonal Behavior, Extended Parallel Processing Model, Organisational Control Theory, Psychological Reactance Theory, Norm Activation Theory, Organizational Behaviour Theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory and Extended Job Demands-Resources. The results from this review may guide the development and evaluation of theories promoting information security compliance behaviours. This will further contribute in the development of an integrated theory of information security compliance behaviour.
The Malaysian government is committed to provide comprehensive digital government services and it is reflected in some policies and strategic plans such as 11th Malaysia Plan 2016-2020 (RMKe-11) for digital government transformation. However, though most of the Malaysia government services are online yet they are still inadequate and the majority of users are unhappy with the current services. Usability is a critical aspect in the success of digital government. Thus, this research aims to develop and validate a usability conceptual model of digital government services in Malaysia context to identify key factors that influence the perceived usability that assists to encourage usage and satisfaction of digital government services. This research has applied quantitativedeductive approach and employed PLS-SEM analysis. Empirical results indicate that Effectiveness, Efficiency, Learnability, Satisfaction, Usefulness, and Citizen Centric are key factors of perceived usability of digital government services. The evaluation of the proposed conceptual model yielded that three of the six factors which are Effectiveness, Satisfaction, and Citizen Centric have significant positive influence on perceived usability of digital government in Malaysia context.
PurposeThis study examines the impact of social media information sharing and usage on consumer beliefs particularly in the credibility of the information provided by e-commerce vendors, and consumer trust formation.Design/methodology/approachDrawing on trust through social media usage and surface credibility, the authors have proposed a research model to investigate consumers satisfaction on food and beverage (F&B) products. Empirical support for the research model was provided by using structural equation modelling using survey data drawn from Malaysian consumers with an account with Facebook.FindingsResults indicate that consumer participation in social media communities support higher levels of consumer trust and ratings of the surface credibility of information provided by an F&B vendor, and surface credibility also helped to develop consumer trust. Trust in the vendor also exerted a positive influence on consumer satisfaction with F&B product offerings. Results suggest that F&B that provide credible and transparent information regarding their branded products, enjoy increased levels of consumer trust, leading to higher levels of consumer satisfaction with their F&B consumption experience.Originality/valueThe result of this research contributes to social commerce branch of literature and has practical implications for practitioners in the F&B industry as a means to survival strategies to embrace critical and challenging period during an endemic, particularly. As such, this study analyses the relationship between social media usage, surface credibility, trust and satisfaction for developing consumer trust while managing enterprise social media.
The growth of cyberspace world has uprising government agencies in a new way to serve citizen in a proactive, efficient and productive manner. To have an open, stable and vibrant cyberspace, governments should be more resilient to cyber-attacks and able to protect all government agency’s interest in cyberspace. Therefore, the government needs a transformative cyber governance security model to protect valuable government agencies’ information. The model should be able to detect, defend and deter the vulnerabilities, threats and risks that will emerge in the day to day government administration operation. This paper has introduced a study for some existing cyber governance security models. Thus, it helps in determining the main features of the required model.
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