Rapid industrialization has led to release of toxic effluents in water which contaminate the ecosystem. With worldwide increase of textile industries in many countries significant use of synthetic complex organic dyes as colouring material have increased significantly. Azo dyes are widely used due to complex structures and high persistence to dye various materials such as leather, plastics, textiles, food, paper and cosmetics and their breakdown product have carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on various life forms. Biologically synthesized iron nanoparticles can degrade intermediate byproduct such as aromatic amines by various enzymes which are successfully utilized for the elimination of hazardous and toxic wastes due to their catalytic, supermagnetic property and greater efficiency. This mini review discusses the mechanism of biodegradation and decolorization of azo dyes by biogenic iron nanoparticles by optimizing various parameters. This suggested that iron nanoparticles are suitable for decolorization of textile effluents which is eco-efficient, less time consuming and economic approach.
10The plant parasitic nematodes are one of world major agricultural pest, causing in excess of 157 billion dollars 11 in worldwide damage annually. This study has provided evidence that gold nanoparticles have great utility for 12 management of root-knot nematodes in tomato crop. The effect of gold nanoparticles on Meloidogyne incognita 13 J2 was remarkable under the direct exposure in water, after three hours of incubation of Meloidogyne incognita 14 with GNPs showed the 100% mortality. The lesser survival rate of Meloidogyne incognita in soil treatment 15 showed the strong nematicidal effect of gold nanoparticles. Subsequently, the pot experiment had shown the 16 beneficial effects of gold nanoparticles for intensively managing the root-knot nematode. The Pot experiment 17 not only showed us that GNPs were lethal to root-knot nematodes were also induces growth of tomato plants 18 and didn't have any kind of negative impact on plant growth. In our study, GNPs were found to be safe and 19 lethal to Meloidogyne incognita. 20 Keywords 21 Meloidogyne incognita, Gold nanoparticles, Toxicity 22 33 bio-gold nanoparticles were first synthesized by (Beveridge and Murry in 1980) by Bacillus subtilis followed by 34 (Nair and Pradeep 2002), who investigated lactic acid bacteria leading to the synthesis of 20-200 nm and are 35 called nanocrystals. In the present study, a bacterial isolate Bacillus licheniformis strain GPI-2 was isolated 36 from pebbles samples of a local gold mine near Khaltunala latitude (31.21515044oN), which synthesized gold 37 nanoparticles of 20-35nm size and hexagonal as well spherical shape. This study was undertaken to evaluate the 38 efficiency of gold nanoparticles synthesized by Bacillus licheniformis GPI-2 to control significant plant root 39 nematode (Meloidogyne incognita).
40Meloidogyne incognita is a nematode belonging to family Heteroderidae and is commonly known as root-knot 41 nematode as it prefers to attack the root of its host plant. It has worldwide distribution and numerous hosts.
42When M. incognita attacks the roots of host plants, it sets up a feeding location, where it deforms the normal
Laccase enzyme has acquired the status of 'green catalyst' and it possesses remarkable bioremediation potential. It has numerous applications in effluent detoxification, degradation of textile dyes, herbicide and insecticide degradation, wine clarification, enzymatic conversion of chemical intermediates, biosensors and organic synthesis, where enzymatic catalysis could serve as a more environmentally benign alternative than the currently used chemical processes. In the present study 74 total bacterial isolates were isolated from 18 samples collected from three paper mills of Himachal Pradesh using M162 containing 5 mM guaiacol and 40 mg/l CuSO 4 . Secondary screening for laccase activity on the basis of their ability to oxidise tannic acid and laccase specific substrate dimethoxyphenol led to selection of sixteen bacterial isolates. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characterization and laccase activity, five bacterial isolates exhibiting maximum laccase activity were selected and molecular characterization was carried out using 16S rRNA gene technology. In silico analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified these bacterial isolates as Pseudomonas lurida strain LR5.1, Pseudomonas lurida strain LB6.2, Lysinibacillus sphaericus strain LH3.4, Bacillus subtilis strain LB6.1 and Bacillus subtilis strain LR6.3.
A bacterial strain AST2.2 with chlorpyrifos degrading ability was isolated by enrichment technique from apple orchard soil with previous history of chlorpyrifos use. Based on the morphological, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, AST2.2 strain was identified as Pseudomonas resinovarans. The strain AST2.2 utilized chlorpyrifos as the sole source of carbon and energy. This strain exhibited growth upto 400mg/l concentration of chlorpyrifos and exhibited high extracellular organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) activity. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) studies revealed that Pseudomonas resinovarans AST2.2 degraded 43.90 % of chlorpyrifos (400 mg/l) within 96 hrs. Intermediates of chlorpyrifos degradation were identified using GC-MS. This strain have potential to degrade chlorpyrifos and thus can be used for bioremediation and ecological restoration of sites contaminated with chlorpyrifos
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