The ability of linear stochastic response analysis to estimate coherent motions is investigated in turbulent channel flow at friction Reynolds number Re τ = 1007. The analysis is performed for spatial scales characteristic of buffer-layer and large-scale motions by separating the contributions of different temporal frequencies. Good agreement between the measured spatio-temporal power spectral densities and those estimated by means of the resolvent is found when the effect of turbulent Reynolds stresses, modelled with an eddy-viscosity associated to the turbulent mean flow, is included in the resolvent operator. The agreement is further improved when the flat forcing power spectrum (white noise) is replaced with a power spectrum matching the measures. Such a good agreement is not observed when the eddy-viscosity terms are not included in the resolvent operator. In this case, the estimation based on the resolvent is unable to select the right peak frequency and wall-normal location of buffer-layer motions. Similar results are found when comparing truncated expansions of measured streamwise velocity power spectral densities based on a spectral proper orthogonal decomposition to those obtained with optimal resolvent modes.
This work deals with the feedforward active control of Tollmien-Schlichting instability waves over incompressible 2D and 3D boundary layers. Through an extensive numerical study, two strategies are evaluated; the optimal linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller, designed using the Eigensystem realization algorithm, is compared to a wave-cancellation scheme, which is obtained using the direct inversion of frequency-domain transfer functions of the system. For the evaluated cases, it is shown that LQG leads to a similar control law and presents a comparable performance to the simpler, wave-cancellation scheme, indicating that the former acts via a destructive interference of the incoming wavepacket downstream of actuation. The results allow further insight into the physics behind flow control of convectively unstable flows permitting, for instance, the optimization of the transverse position for actuation. Using concepts of linear stability theory and the derived transfer function, a more efficient actuation for flow control is chosen, leading to similar attenuation of Tollmien-Schlichting waves with only about 10% of the actuation power in the baseline case.
The current work presents a realizable method to control streaky disturbances in boundary layer flows and delay transition to turbulence by means of active flow control. Numerical simulations of the nonlinear transitional regime in a Blasius boundary layer are performed where streaks are excited in the boundary layer by means of a high level of free-stream turbulence. The occurring disturbances are measured by means of localized wall-shear-stress sensors and damped out using near-wall actuators, which resemble ring plasma actuators. Each actuator is powered by a time-varying signal whose amplitude is computed by processing signals from the sensors. The processed signal is the result of two control laws: the Linear Quadratic Gaussian regulator (LQG) and the Inverse Feed-Forward Control technique (IFFC). The use of the first control method, LQG, requires a state-space representation of the system dynamics, so the flow is described by means of a linear time-invariant operator that captures only the most relevant information of the dynamics and results in a reduced order model (ROM). The ROM is computed by means of the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA), which is based on the impulse responses of the real system. Collecting such impulse responses may be unfeasible when considering free-stream turbulence because of the high dimensionality of the input forcing needed for a precise description of such a phenomenon. Here, a new method to identify the relevant system dynamics and generate the needed impulse responses is proposed, based on additional shear-stress measurements in an upstream location. Transfer functions between such measurements and other downstream sensors are obtained and allow the derivation of the ERA system, in a data-driven approach that would be realizable in experiments. Finally, the effectiveness of the technique in delaying bypass transition is shown. The work (i) presents a systematic and straightforward way to deal with high dimensional disturbances in order to build ROMs for a feasible control technique, and (ii) shows that even when considering practical constraints such as the type and size of actuators and sensors, it is possible to achieve at least as large delay of bypass transition as that obtained in more idealized cases found in literature.
This work deals with the closed-loop control of streaky structures induced by free-stream turbulence (FST) in a zero-pressure gradient, transitional boundary layer, by means of localized sensors and actuators. A linear quadratic gaussian regulator is considered along with a system identification technique to build reduced-order models for control. Three actuators are developed with different spatial supports, corresponding to a baseline shape with only vertical forcing, and to two other shapes obtained by different optimization procedures. A computationally efficient method is derived to obtain an actuator which aims to induce the exact structures which are inside the boundary layer, given in terms of their first spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) mode, and an actuator that maximizes the energy of induced downstream structures. Two free-stream turbulence levels were evaluated, corresponding to 3.0% and 3.5%, and closed-loop control is applied in large-eddy simulations of transitional boundary layers. All three actuators lead to significant delays in the transition to turbulence and were shown to be robust to mild variations in the free-stream turbulence levels. Differences are understood in terms of the SPOD of actuation and FST-induced fields along with the causality of the control scheme when a cancellation of disturbances is considered. The actuator optimized to generate the leading downstream SPOD mode, representing the streaks in the open-loop flow, leads to the highest transition delay, which can be understood due to its capability of closely cancelling structures in the boundary layer. However, it is shown that even with the actuator located downstream of the input measurement it may become impossible to cancel incoming disturbances in a causal way, depending on the wall-normal position of the output and on the actuator considered, which limits sensor and actuator placement capable of good closed-loop performance.
The stability of an incompressible boundary layer flow over a wing in the presence of free stream turbulence (FST) has been investigated by means of direct numerical simulations and compared with the linearised boundary layer equations. Four different FST conditions have been considered, which are characterised by their turbulence intensity levels and length scales. In all cases the perturbed flow develops into elongated disturbances of high and low streamwise velocity inside the boundary layer, where their spacing has been found to be strongly dependent on the scales of the incoming free stream vorticity. The breakdown of these streaks into turbulent spots from local secondary instabilities is also observed, presenting the same development as the ones reported in flat plate experiments. The disturbance growth, characterised by its root mean squares value, is found to depend not only on the turbulence level, but also on the FST length scales. Particularly, higher disturbance growth is observed for our cases with larger length scales. This behaviour is attributed to the preferred wavenumbers that can exhibit maximum transient growth. We study this boundary layer preference by projection of the flow fields at the leading edge onto optimal disturbances. Our results demonstrate that optimal disturbance growth is the main cause of growth of disturbances on the wing boundary layer.
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