Super-resolution reconstruction produces one or a set of high-resolution images from a set of low-resolution images. In the last two decades, a variety of super-resolution methods have been proposed. These methods are usually very sensitive to their assumed model of data and noise, which limits their utility. This paper reviews some of these methods and addresses their short-comings. We propose an alternate approach using L1 norm minimization and robust regularization based on a bilateral prior to deal with different data and noise models. This computationally inexpensive method is robust to errors in motion and blur estimation and results in images with sharp edges. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of our method and demonstrate its superiority to other super-resolution methods.
In this paper, we make contact with the field of nonparametric statistics and present a development and generalization of tools and results for use in image processing and reconstruction. In particular, we adapt and expand kernel regression ideas for use in image denoising, upscaling, interpolation, fusion, and more. Furthermore, we establish key relationships with some popular existing methods and show how several of these algorithms, including the recently popularized bilateral filter, are special cases of the proposed framework. The resulting algorithms and analyses are amply illustrated with practical examples.
Removal of noise from an image is an extensively studied problem in image processing. Indeed, the recent advent of sophisticated and highly effective denoising algorithms lead some to believe that existing methods are touching the ceiling in terms of noise removal performance. Can we leverage this impressive achievement to treat other tasks in image processing? Recent work has answered this question positively, in the form of the Plug-and-Play Prior (P 3 ) method, showing that any inverse problem can be handled by sequentially applying image denoising steps. This relies heavily on the ADMM optimization technique in order to obtain this chained denoising interpretation.Is this the only way in which tasks in image processing can exploit the image denoising engine? In this paper we provide an alternative, more powerful and more flexible framework for achieving the same goal. As opposed to the P 3 method, we offer Regularization by Denoising (RED): using the denoising engine in defining the regularization of the inverse problem. We propose an explicit image-adaptive Laplacian-based regularization functional, making the overall objective functional clearer and better defined. With a complete flexibility to choose the iterative optimization procedure for minimizing the above functional, RED is capable of incorporating any image denoising algorithm, treat general inverse problems very effectively, and is guaranteed to converge to the globally optimal result. We test this approach and demonstrate state-of-the-art results in the image deblurring and super-resolution problems.
The concept of prior probability for signals plays a key role in the successful solution of many inverse problems. Much of the literature on this topic can be divided between analysis-based and synthesis-based priors. Analysis-based priors assign probability to a signal through various forward measurements of it, while synthesisbased priors seek a reconstruction of the signal as a combination of atom signals. In this paper we describe these two prior classes, focusing on the distinction between them. We show that although when reducing to the complete and under-complete formulations the two become equivalent, in their more interesting overcomplete formulation the two types depart. Focusing on the 1 denoising case, we present several ways of comparing the two types of priors, establishing the existence of an unbridgeable gap between them.
Automatically learned quality assessment for images has recently become a hot topic due to its usefulness in a wide variety of applications such as evaluating image capture pipelines, storage techniques and sharing media. Despite the subjective nature of this problem, most existing methods only predict the mean opinion score provided by datasets such as AVA  and TID2013 . Our approach differs from others in that we predict the distribution of human opinion scores using a convolutional neural network. Our architecture also has the advantage of being significantly simpler than other methods with comparable performance. Our proposed approach relies on the success (and retraining) of proven, state-of-the-art deep object recognition networks. Our resulting network can be used to not only score images reliably and with high correlation to human perception, but also to assist with adaptation and optimization of photo editing/enhancement algorithms in a photographic pipeline. All this is done without need for a "golden" reference image, consequently allowing for single-image, semantic- and perceptually-aware, no-reference quality assessment.
Abstract-Super-resolution reconstruction proposes a fusion of several low-quality images into one higher quality result with better optical resolution. Classic super-resolution techniques strongly rely on the availability of accurate motion estimation for this fusion task. When the motion is estimated inaccurately, as often happens for nonglobal motion fields, annoying artifacts appear in the super-resolved outcome. Encouraged by recent developments on the video denoising problem, where state-of-the-art algorithms are formed with no explicit motion estimation, we seek a super-resolution algorithm of similar nature that will allow processing sequences with general motion patterns. In this paper, we base our solution on the Nonlocal-Means (NLM) algorithm. We show how this denoising method is generalized to become a relatively simple super-resolution algorithm with no explicit motion estimation. Results on several test movies show that the proposed method is very successful in providing super-resolution on general sequences.
We present a novel unified framework for both static and space-time saliency detection. Our method is a bottom-up approach and computes so-called local regression kernels (i.e., local descriptors) from the given image (or a video), which measure the likeness of a pixel (or voxel) to its surroundings. Visual saliency is then computed using the said "self-resemblance" measure. The framework results in a saliency map where each pixel (or voxel) indicates the statistical likelihood of saliency of a feature matrix given its surrounding feature matrices. As a similarity measure, matrix cosine similarity (a generalization of cosine similarity) is employed. State of the art performance is demonstrated on commonly used human eye fixation data (static scenes (N. Bruce & J. Tsotsos, 2006) and dynamic scenes (L. Itti & P. Baldi, 2006)) and some psychological patterns.
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