Biocompatible synthetic polymer gel scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine were prepared by reactive electrospinning. Protein-like nano-and microfibres from chemically crosslinked polysuccinimide were obtained. Fibrous poly(aspartic acid) gels with size similar to that of extracellular matrix were obtained by hydrolysis of the polysuccinimide gel fibres. The effects of process parameters on fibre morphology (diameter, swelling degree) and chemical structure were investigated. Sub-micrometre-sized biocompatible fibrous scaffolds from a poly(amino acid) is a novel approach with great promise in several biomedical applications due to the tailor-made synthetic nature, extreme purity and possibility of production on a large scale.
We present direct measurements of the kinetics of surface relief gratings (SRGs) formation in amorphous AsxSe100−x (20≤xAs≤50) thin films. SRGs are induced in different holographic schemes of recording using near-band-gap light and their growth is further facilitated by illumination with an interference pattern and observed in real time by in situ atomic force microscopy. It is found that the kinetics of SRG formation depends upon film composition and incident light polarization. The light-stimulated vectorial surface deformations are maximized for Se-rich glasses and increase even further by additional illumination during recording.
Background: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of disinfection and three different sterilization methods on the dimensional changes and mechanical properties of three-dimensional (3D) printed surgical guide for implant therapy. The objective was to assess the effects of sterilization procedures in 3D printed drill guide templates with destructive and non-destructive material testing. Methods: Fifteen identical drill guide templates were produced using a 3D printer. The surgical guides were classified into five groups: three controls, three disinfected (4% Gigasept®, 60 min), three plasma sterilized, three autoclave sterilized (+ 1 bar, 121°C, 20 min), and three autoclave sterilized (+ 2 bar, 134°C, 10 min). The templates were digitalized with a Steinbichler SCAN ST 3D scanner. Length was measured under an SZX16 stereomicroscope. A scanning electron microscope was used to study the surface morphology of the drill templates. The hardness, and flexural and compressive strength were measured to assess any changes in the physical characteristics of the material caused by sterilization. The drill guide templates were also examined with a Dage XiDAT 6600 X-ray. During the X-ray examinations, the following parameters were used: 100 kV voltage, 128 AVG averaging, 0.8 W power. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect the difference between groups. Results: Evaluation of the hardness measurements of the various specimens shows that the hardness of the material was not changed by the plasma sterilization (p = 0.0680), steam sterilization on 121°C (p = 0.6033) or disinfection process (p = 0.1399). The statistical analysis revealed significant difference in hardness strength of the autoclave sterilized (134°C) specimens (p = 0.0002). There was no significant difference between the goups regarding the scanning electron microscopic and stereomicroscopic examinations. There was no significant difference regarding the X-ray visibility of the templates to the effect of the disinfection (p = 0.7844), plasma sterilization (p = 0.4091) and steam sterilization on 121°C (p = 0.9277) and steam sterilization on 131°C (p = 0.093). The effect of the sterilization was the same in case of both flexural and compressive strength of the material. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that plasma sterilization and steam sterilization at 121°C were both suitable for sterilizing the tested 3D printed surgical guides.
0. Szenci1, Gy. Gyulai1, P. Nagy1, L. Kovács1, J. Varga1 and M.A.M. Taverne2
SUMMARYA 5-MHz sector transducer (experiment 1) and a 7.5 MHz linear-array transducer (experiment 2) were used for early pregnancy diagnosis in two Hungarian dairy herds under field conditions. In the first experiment, ultrasound scanning was conducted three times at 3 or 4-day intervals between 24 and 33 days after artificial insemination (AI), while in the second experiment, it was performed two times at 7-day intervals between 27 and 38 days post-insemination. Signifi-cantly more incorrect non-pregnancy diagnoses were made between 24 and 33 days (first experiment) and between 27 and 38 days (second experiment) after AI in cows in which the uterus was located far cranial to the pelvic inlet than in animals in which the uterus was located within or close to the pelvic inlet at the first ultrasonographic examination.
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