Background: In the photodynamic therapy (PDT), the photosensitizer absorbs light and transfers the energy of the excited state to the oxygen in the cell environment producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), that in its turn, may cause cell damage. In the photothermal therapy (PTT), light also is responsible for activating the photothermal agent, which converts the absorbed energy in heat. Graphene oxide is a carbon-based material that presents photothermal activity. Its physical properties allow the association with the photosensitizer methylene blue and consequently the production of ROS when submitted to light irradiation. Therefore, the association between nanographene oxide and methylene blue could represent a strategy to enhance therapeutic actions. In this work, we report the nanographene oxide-methylene blue platform (NanoGO-MB) used to promote tumor ablation in combination with photodynamic and photothermal therapies against a syngeneic orthotopic murine breast cancer model.
Results:In vitro, NanoGO-MB presented 50% of the reactive oxygen species production compared to the free MB after LED light irradiation, and a temperature increase of ~ 40 °C followed by laser irradiation. On cells, the ROS production by the nanoplatform displayed higher values in tumor than normal cells. In vivo assays demonstrated a synergistic effect obtained by the combined PDT/PTT therapies using NanoGO-MB, which promoted complete tumor ablation in 5/5 animals. Up to 30 days after the last treatment, there was no tumor regrowth compared with only PDT or PTT groups, which displayed tumoral bioluminescence 63-fold higher than the combined treatment group. Histological studies confirmed that the combined therapies were able to prevent tumor regrowth and liver, lung and spleen metastasis. In addition, low systemic toxicity was observed in pathologic examinations of liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys.
Conclusions:The treatment with combined PDT/PTT therapies using NanoGO-MB induced more toxicity on breast carcinoma cells than on normal cells. In vivo, the combined therapies promoted complete tumor ablation and metastasis prevention while only PDT or PTT were unable to stop tumor development. The results show the potential of NanoGO-MB in combination with the phototherapies in the treatment of the breast cancer and metastasis prevention.
In this study, we combined electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with an analysis of biophysical cellular parameters to study the mechanisms underlying the in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of miltefosine (MT). A thiol-specific spin label attached to membrane-bound proteins of Leishmania amazonensis and peritoneal macrophages indicated that MT may bind to plasma membrane proteins in large quantities via a detergent-like action and cause structural changes associated with a marked increase in dynamics and exposure to an aqueous environment. EPR spectra of a spin-labeled stearic acid indicated strong interactions between the probe and membrane proteins and a marked increase in the membrane fluidity of MT-treated cells. The cytotoxicity of MT was found to depend on the cell concentration used in the assay. This dependence was described by an equation involving the 50% inhibitory concentrations of MT in the aqueous medium (c) and the cell membrane (c) and the membrane-aqueous medium partition coefficient of MT (K). With a c of 8.7μM, macrophages were less sensitive to MT than amastigotes and promastigotes of Leishmania, which had c values of 2.4-3.1μM. The estimated c of MT for Leishmania was 1.8M, which appears sufficient to cause ruptures or formation of pores in the plasma membrane. Additionally, we demonstrated that the changes in the plasma membrane detected by EPR spectroscopy occurred at cytotoxic concentrations of MT, as assessed through in vitro assays.
The present study reports a physicochemical comparison of shade-grown and sun-grown coffee beans, under unripe, rip and roasted-ripe conditions, using electrical conductivity measurements, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, the assessed physicochemical parameters were compared with organoleptic evaluations based on the Coffee Quality Institute protocol. The values found for electrical conductivity, leached potassium, and stable free radicals were respectively 29%, 31%, and 350% higher for shade-grown coffee beans, whereas polyphenol oxidase enzymatic activity was 23% lower. By contrast, FTIR and HPLC measurements identified higher chlorogenic acid and lipid contents in sun-grown coffee beans. Importantly, the sensorial grade attributed to roasted-ripe grains was 12% higher for sun-grown coffee. Our findings suggest that shade-grown coffee beans have undergone microorganismal activity and undesired fermentation during cultivation, which resulted in lower coffee quality. A correlation between a set of selected physicochemical properties and organoleptic properties was robustly
An aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) effect in fluorescent lipophilic 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTD) derivatives and their organic nanoaggregates were studied. A set of techniques such as single-crystal X-ray, dynamic light scattering (DLS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), UV−vis, fluorescence, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to decipher the formation/break (kinetics), properties, and dynamics of the organic nanoaggregates of three BTD small organic molecules. An in-depth study of the excited-state also revealed the preferential relaxation emissive pathways for the BTD derivatives and the dynamics associated with it. The results described herein, for the first time, explain the formation of fluorescent BTD nanoaggregate derivatives and allow for the understanding of their dynamics in solution as well as the ruling forces of both aggregation and break processes along with the involved equilibrium. One of the developed dyes could be used at a nanomolar concentration to selectively stain lipid droplets emitting an intense and bright fluorescence at the red channel. The other two BTDs could also stain lipid droplets at very low concentrations and were visualized preferentially at the blue channel.
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