Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page.
Context. We still do not understand which physical mechanisms are responsible for the transport of angular momentum inside stars. The recent detection of mixed modes that contain the clear signature of rotation in the spectra of Kepler subgiants and red giants gives us the opportunity to make progress on this question. Aims. Our aim is to probe the radial dependence of the rotation profiles for a sample of Kepler targets. For this purpose, subgiants and early red giants are particularly interesting targets because their rotational splittings are more sensitive to the rotation outside the deeper core than is the case for their more evolved counterparts. Methods. We first extracted the rotational splittings and frequencies of the modes for six young Kepler red giants. We then performed a seismic modeling of these stars using the evolutionary codes Cesam2k and astec. By using the observed splittings and the rotational kernels of the optimal models, we inverted the internal rotation profiles of the six stars. Results. We obtain estimates of the core rotation rates for these stars, and upper limits to the rotation in their convective envelope. We show that the rotation contrast between the core and the envelope increases during the subgiant branch. Our results also suggest that the core of subgiants spins up with time, while their envelope spins down. For two of the stars, we show that a discontinuous rotation profile with a deep discontinuity reproduces the observed splittings significantly better than a smooth rotation profile. Interestingly, the depths that are found to be most probable for the discontinuities roughly coincide with the location of the H-burning shell, which separates the layers that contract from those that expand. Conclusions. We characterized the differential rotation pattern of six young giants with a range of metallicities, and with both radiative and convective cores on the main sequence. This will bring observational constraints to the scenarios of angular momentum transport in stars. Moreover, if the existence of sharp gradients in the rotation profiles of young red giants is confirmed, it is expected to help in distinguishing between the physical processes that could transport angular momentum in the subgiant and red giant branches.
Context. The Kepler spacecraft is providing time series of photometric data with micromagnitude precision for hundreds of A-F type stars. Aims. We present a first general characterization of the pulsational behaviour of A-F type stars as observed in the Kepler light curves of a sample of 750 candidate A-F type stars, and observationally investigate the relation between γ Doradus (γ Dor), δ Scuti (δ Sct), and hybrid stars. Methods. We compile a database of physical parameters for the sample stars from the literature and new ground-based observations. We analyse the Kepler light curve of each star and extract the pulsational frequencies using different frequency analysis methods. We construct two new observables, "energy" and "efficiency", related to the driving energy of the pulsation mode and the convective efficiency of the outer convective zone, respectively. Results. We propose three main groups to describe the observed variety in pulsating A-F type stars: γ Dor, δ Sct, and hybrid stars. We assign 63% of our sample to one of the three groups, and identify the remaining part as rotationally modulated/active stars, binaries, stars of different spectral type, or stars that show no clear periodic variability. 23% of the stars (171 stars) are hybrid stars, which is a much higher fraction than what has been observed before. We characterize for the first time a large number of A-F type stars (475 stars) in terms of number of detected frequencies, frequency range, and typical pulsation amplitudes. The majority of hybrid stars show frequencies with all kinds of periodicities within the γ Dor and δ Sct range, also between 5 and 10 d −1 , which is a challenge for the current models. We find indications for the existence of δ Sct and γ Dor stars beyond the edges of the current observational instability strips. The hybrid stars occupy the entire region within the δ Sct and γ Dor instability strips and beyond. Non-variable stars seem to exist within the instability strips. The location of γ Dor and δ Sct classes in the (T eff , log g)-diagram has been extended. We investigate two newly constructed variables, "efficiency" and "energy", as a means to explore the relation between γ Dor and δ Sct stars. Conclusions. Our results suggest a revision of the current observational instability strips of δ Sct and γ Dor stars and imply an investigation of pulsation mechanisms to supplement the κ mechanism and convective blocking effect to drive hybrid pulsations. Accurate physical parameters for all stars are needed to confirm these findings.
Context. At about 1000 days after the launch of Gaia we present the first Gaia data release, Gaia DR1, consisting of astrometry and photometry for over 1 billion sources brighter than magnitude 20.7. Aims. A summary of Gaia DR1 is presented along with illustrations of the scientific quality of the data, followed by a discussion of the limitations due to the preliminary nature of this release. Methods. The raw data collected by Gaia during the first 14 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into an astrometric and photometric catalogue. Results. Gaia DR1 consists of three components: a primary astrometric data set which contains the positions, parallaxes, and mean proper motions for about 2 million of the brightest stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues -a realisation of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) -and a secondary astrometric data set containing the positions for an additional 1.1 billion sources. The second component is the photometric data set, consisting of mean G-band magnitudes for all sources. The G-band light curves and the characteristics of ∼3000 Cepheid and RR Lyrae stars, observed at high cadence around the south ecliptic pole, form the third component. For the primary astrometric data set the typical uncertainty is about 0.3 mas for the positions and parallaxes, and about 1 mas yr −1 for the proper motions. A systematic component of ∼0.3 mas should be added to the parallax uncertainties. For the subset of ∼94 000 Hipparcos stars in the primary data set, the proper motions are much more precise at about 0.06 mas yr −1 . For the secondary astrometric data set, the typical uncertainty of the positions is ∼10 mas. The median uncertainties on the mean G-band magnitudes range from the mmag level to ∼0.03 mag over the magnitude range 5 to 20.7. Conclusions. Gaia DR1 is an important milestone ahead of the next Gaia data release, which will feature five-parameter astrometry for all sources. Extensive validation shows that Gaia DR1 represents a major advance in the mapping of the heavens and the availability of basic stellar data that underpin observational astrophysics. Nevertheless, the very preliminary nature of this first Gaia data release does lead to a number of important limitations to the data quality which should be carefully considered before drawing conclusions from the data.
The nearly circular (mean eccentricity e ≈ 0.06) and coplanar (mean mutual inclination i ≈ 3°) orbits of the solar system planets motivated Kant and Laplace to hypothesize that planets are formed in disks, which has developed into the widely accepted theory of planet formation. The first several hundred extrasolar planets (mostly Jovian) discovered using the radial velocity (RV) technique are commonly on eccentric orbits ( e ≈ 0.3). This raises a fundamental question: Are the solar system and its formation special? The Kepler mission has found thousands of transiting planets dominated by sub-Neptunes, but most of their orbital eccentricities remain unknown. By using the precise spectroscopic host star parameters from the Large Sky Area MultiObject Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) observations, we measure the eccentricity distributions for a large (698) and homogeneous Kepler planet sample with transit duration statistics. Nearly half of the planets are in systems with single transiting planets (singles), whereas the other half are multiple transiting planets (multiples). We find an eccentricity dichotomy: on average, Kepler singles are on eccentric orbits with e ≈ 0.3, whereas the multiples are on nearly circular ( e = 0.04 +0.03 −0.04 ) and coplanar ( i = 1.4 +0.8 −1.1 degree) orbits similar to those of the solar system planets. Our results are consistent with previous studies of smaller samples and individual systems. We also show that Kepler multiples and solar system objects follow a common relation [ e ≈ (1-2)× i] between mean eccentricities and mutual inclinations. The prevalence of circular orbits and the common relation may imply that the solar system is not so atypical in the galaxy after all.orbital eccentricities | exoplanets | transit | solar system | planetary dynamics O ur knowledge of orbital shapes (parameterized with eccentricities) of planetary systems has been drastically advanced in the last 2 decades largely thanks to the radial velocity (RV) planet surveys, but there remain some major puzzles. For example, the majority of RV planets are found on eccentric orbits ( e ≈ 0.3) (1) in contrast to the solar system planets, raising a fundamental question: Is the solar system an atypical member of the planetary system population in the galaxy (2)? Furthermore, the RV method has some key limitations. For example, several notable biases and degeneracies can introduce considerable systematical uncertainties into the eccentricity distributions derived from the RV technique (3-5). In addition, the majority of eccentricities measured using the RV method are for giant planets (e.g., Jupiter size), whereas the eccentricity distributions of smaller planets (e.g., Earth to Neptune size) remain poorly understood.Complementary to the RV technique, the Kepler mission has discovered thousands of planet candidates down to about Earth radius using the transit technique (6). About half of the Kepler planets are in systems with multiple transiting planets, and on average, they are on nearly coplanar orbits sim...
We present an evaluation of the performance of an automated classification of the Hipparcos periodic variable stars into 26 types. The sub‐sample with the most reliable variability types available in the literature is used to train supervised algorithms to characterize the type dependencies on a number of attributes. The most useful attributes evaluated with the random forest methodology include, in decreasing order of importance, the period, the amplitude, the V−I colour index, the absolute magnitude, the residual around the folded light‐curve model, the magnitude distribution skewness and the amplitude of the second harmonic of the Fourier series model relative to that of the fundamental frequency. Random forests and a multi‐stage scheme involving Bayesian network and Gaussian mixture methods lead to statistically equivalent results. In standard 10‐fold cross‐validation (CV) experiments, the rate of correct classification is between 90 and 100 per cent, depending on the variability type. The main mis‐classification cases, up to a rate of about 10 per cent, arise due to confusion between SPB and ACV blue variables and between eclipsing binaries, ellipsoidal variables and other variability types. Our training set and the predicted types for the other Hipparcos periodic stars are available online.
The analysis of the light curves of 48 B‐type stars observed by Kepler is presented. Among these are 15 pulsating stars, all of which show low frequencies, characteristic of slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars. Seven of these stars also show a few weak, isolated high frequencies and they could be considered as SPB/β Cephei (β Cep) hybrids. In all cases, the frequency spectra are quite different from what is seen from ground‐based observations. We suggest that this is because most of the low frequencies are modes of high degree which are predicted to be unstable in models of mid‐B stars. We find that there are non‐pulsating stars within the β Cep and SPB instability strips. Apart from the pulsating stars, we can identify stars with frequency groupings similar to what is seen in Be stars but which are not Be stars. The origin of the groupings is not clear, but may be related to rotation. We find periodic variations in other stars which we attribute to proximity effects in binary systems or possibly rotational modulation. We find no evidence for pulsating stars between the cool edge of the SPB and the hot edge of the δ Sct instability strips. None of the stars shows the broad features which can be attributed to stochastically excited modes as recently proposed. Among our sample of B stars are two chemically peculiar stars, one of which is a HgMn star showing rotational modulation in the light curve.
The Kepler space mission provided near-continuous and high-precision photometry of about 207,000 stars, which can be used for asteroseismology. However, for successful seismic modelling it is equally important to have accurate stellar physical parameters. Therefore, supplementary ground-based data are needed. We report the results of the analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data of A-and F-type stars from the Kepler field, which were obtained with the HERMES spectrograph on the Mercator telescope. We determined spectral types, atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for a sample of 117 stars. Hydrogen Balmer, Fe i, and Fe ii lines were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. The atmospheric parameters obtained were compared with those from the Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC), confirming that the KIC effective temperatures are underestimated for A stars. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined from the spectral line analysis. The analysed sample comprises stars with approximately solar chemical abundances, as well as chemically peculiar stars of the Am, Ap, and λ Boo types. The distribution of the projected rotational velocity, v sin i, is typical for A and F stars and ranges from 8 to about 280 km s −1 , with a mean of 134 km s −1 .
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.