Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the CNS but its diagnosis remains difficult. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific, most neuroimaging findings are not pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity and specificity. The authors provide diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis based on objective clinical, imaging, immunologic, and epidemiologic data. These include four categories of criteria stratified on the basis of their diagnostic strength, including the following: 1) absolute-histologic demonstration of the parasite from biopsy of a brain or spinal cord lesion, cystic lesions showing the scolex on CT or MRI, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by funduscopic examination; 2) major-lesions highly suggestive of neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after therapy with albendazole or praziquantel, and spontaneous resolution of small single enhancing lesions; 3) minor-lesions compatible with neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, clinical manifestations suggestive of neurocysticercosis, positive CSF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the CNS; and 4) epidemiologic-evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in an area where cysticercosis is endemic, and history of frequent travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: 1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a common cause of epileptic seizures and other neurological morbidity in most developing countries. It is also an increasingly common diagnosis in industrialized countries because of immigration from areas where it is endemic. Its clinical manifestations are highly variable and depend on the number, stage, and size of the lesions and the host's immune response. In part due to this variability, major discrepancies exist in the treatment of neurocysticercosis. A panel of experts in taeniasis/cysticercosis discussed the evidence on treatment of neurocysticercosis for each clinical presentation, and we present the panel's consensus and areas of disagreement. Overall, four general recommendations were made: (i) individualize therapeutic decisions, including whether to use antiparasitic drugs, based on the number, location, and viability of the parasites within the nervous system; (ii) actively manage growing cysticerci either with antiparasitic drugs or surgical excision; (iii) prioritize the management of intracranial hypertension secondary to neurocysticercosis before considering any other form of therapy; and (iv) manage seizures as done for seizures due to other causes of secondary seizures (remote symptomatic seizures) because they are due to an organic focus that has been present for a long time
After the first description of TSP/HAM in 1985 and the elaboration of WHO's diagnostic criteria in 1988, the experience of the professionals in this field has increased so that a critical reappraisal of these diagnostic guidelines was considered timely. Brazilian neurologists and observers from other countries met recently to discuss and propose a modified model for diagnosing TSP/HAM with levels of ascertainment as definite, probable, and possible, according to myelopathic symptoms, serological findings, and/or detection of HTLV-I DNA and exclusion of other disorders.
Neurocysticercosis is responsible for increased rates of seizures and epilepsy in endemic regions. The most common form of the disease, chronic calcific neurocysticercosis, is the end result of the host's inflammatory response to the larval cysticercus of Taenia solium. There is increasing evidence indicating that calcific cysticercosis is not clinically inactive but a cause of seizures or focal symptoms in this population. Perilesional edema is at times also present around implicated calcified foci. A better understanding of the natural history, frequency, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of calcific cysticercosis and associated disease manifestations is needed to define its importance, treatment, and prevention.Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of seizures and other neurologic problems in many less developed countries 1 and a significant health concern in developed countries as well, mostly due to migration of infected persons. 2 Over the last two decades the development of MRI and CT imaging, effective and safe cysticidal drugs, and specific and relatively sensitive serologic tests have given rise to a renaissance in our understanding of the disease and efficacy of treatments. Much of our increased understanding has focused on disease associated with viable or degenerating cysts, broadly referred to as "active" cysticercosis, Copyright © 2004 Life cycleHumans harbor the tapeworm that is acquired by eating poorly cooked pork containing cysticerci of Taenia solium. Ova or proglottids containing ova are excreted in the feces and when ingested by free roaming pigs develop into cysts primarily in the muscles and brain. The usual life cycle is fulfilled after humans ingest undercooked pork. Ova, accidentally ingested by humans, also develop into cysts, mostly in the brain, muscle, and subcutaneous tissues, and this condition is referred to as cysticercosis. 5 Course of infectionAlthough incompletely documented, a reasonable view of the natural history can be ascertained from pathologic, radiologic, and parasitologic studies. Cysticercosis and epilepsyWhile many patients present with single or groups of seizures at various stages of this disease, not all patients develop recurrent seizures, or epilepsy. There are three possibly different scenarios concerning the relationship between cysticercosis and epilepsy: 1) causal relationship, namely, cysticercosis as the cause of focal epilepsies; 2) non causal relationship or simple overlap of two independent and unrelated diseases; and 3) dual pathology. At present there is overwhelming evidence supporting neurocysticercosis as a cause of seizures and epilepsy. Because neurocysticercosis, particularly calcific cysticercosis, is so common in endemic regions (see below), it is likely that two pathologies known to incite seizure activity will be present in some individuals 12 and whether there are interactions or dual pathology between two conditions is speculative. 12 Multiple causes of seizures in cysticercosisThere are multiple ways that cysticercosis can ca...
Here we put forward a roadmap that summarizes important questions that need to be answered to determine more effective and safer treatments. A key concept in management of neurocysticercosis is the understanding that infection and disease due to neurocysticercosis are variable and thus different clinical approaches and treatments are required. Despite recent advances, treatments remain either suboptimal or based on poorly controlled or anecdotal experience. A better understanding of basic pathophysiologic mechanisms including parasite survival and evolution, nature of the inflammatory response, and the genesis of seizures, epilepsy, and mechanisms of anthelmintic action should lead to improved therapies.
The presence of CCL does not influence the clinical and pathologic profile of patients with hippocampal atrophy. Clinical histories and postsurgical outcomes were similar to those of patients with classic HS, suggesting that the CCL is probably, in this set of patients, a coincidental pathology and does not have a role in epileptogenesis.
ObjectiveThe diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) remains problematic because of the heterogeneity of its clinical, immunological, and imaging characteristics. Our aim was to develop and assess a new set of diagnostic criteria for NCC, which might allow for the accurate detection of, and differentiation between, parenchymal and extraparenchymal disease.MethodsA group of Latin American NCC experts developed by consensus a new set of diagnostic criteria for NCC. A multicenter, retrospective study was then conducted to validate it. The reference standard for diagnosis of active NCC was the disappearance or reduction of cysts after anthelmintic treatment. In total, three pairs of independent neurologists blinded to the diagnosis evaluated 93 cases (with NCC) and 93 controls (without NCC) using the new diagnostic criteria. Mixed‐effects logistic regression models were used to estimate sensitivity and specificity.ResultsInter‐rater reliability (kappa) of diagnosis among evaluators was 0.60. For diagnosis of NCC versus no NCC, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 93.2% and specificity of 81.4%. For parenchymal NCC, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 89.8% and specificity of 80.7% and for extraparenchymal NCC, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 65.9% and specificity of 94.9%.InterpretationThese criteria have acceptable reliability and validity and could be a new tool for clinicians and researchers. An advantage of the new criteria is that they consider parasite location (ie, parenchymal or extraparenchymal), which is an important factor determining the clinical, immunological, and radiological presentation of the disease, and importantly, its treatment and prognosis. Ann Neurol 2016;80:434–442
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.