In recent decades, there has been a tendency in the world to increase ethanol production significantly in order to solve energy problems, that is, to use it as a biofuel. The factors determining the production cost of targeted biotechnological products include the output of these products from the raw materials used. One of the modern and effective ways to intensify alcoholic fermentation and reduce the cost of fuel ethanol is yeast recirculation. The research objects were: raw material (sugarbeet molasses), molasses wort, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the strain M-5, fermented wash and its distillates. In the raw materials, intermediate products, and fermented wash, the techno-chemical parameters recommended by the current technology regulations for obtaining spirit from molasses have been determined. Acoholic fermentation was carried out in an industrial environment, in a battery of series-connected fermentors. Recirculation of yeast was carried out by separating it from the final stage of fermentation, concentrating it on the separator, and introducing it into the first fermentor. The experimental data obtained prove that for wort fermentation, it is effective to use yeast that recirculates in the anaerobic stage. It has been established that the alcohol-forming power of recycled yeast increases as the yeast adapts to the environment in which it has been staying for a long time. The yeast becomes more active biochemically, with more efficient metabolism. Its need for continuously cultured biomass is reduced, the share of aerobically assimiliated sugars decreases, and, consequently, the losses during yeast generation are fewer. At the same time, accelerating the initial period of anaerobic fermentation helps inhibit the biosynthesis of glycerol, the formation of which consumes the largest amount of sugar among all the secondary products. The parameters of molasses wort fermentation, with yeast biomass recirculating, have been determined in an industrial environment. It has been established that the alcohol output from the raw materials increases as the synthesis of secondary metabolic products weakens. The advantages of this fermentation method will be used in further studies, namely when fermenting molasses wort, with an increased concentration of dry matter, in order to reduce the specific heat energy consumption in production and to make it cheaper. The developed biotechnology of alcohol can be usefully employed to produce fuel ethanol, and increasing its production will contribute to Ukraine’s energy self-sufficience.
Drinks are important in the human diet. The most promising ones include fermented beverages enriched with bioactive substances of their raw materials and with products of their fermentation. Gluten-free foods, too, are becoming popular as there are more and more people worldwide suffering from coeliac disease. The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental research on developing a technology of a fermented soft drink based on rice as a gluten-free raw material. The domestic cultivars of husked and unhusked rice described in the paper are Agat, Prestizh, and Premium. Their physical, biological, and physicochemical parameters have been studied, and their amino acid and vitamin composition, the content of macronutrients and trace elements have been determined. According to the research results, it is practical to use rice of the Agat variety in the technology of fermented beverages. Compared with the samples of Premium and Prestizh, the extractivity of Agat is higher by 2–5%, and as to the soundness of its kernels and the husk content, it exceeds them, respectively, by 2.5 and 5.5%. The fat content, which reduces the amount of esters formed during fermentation and adversely affects the foam retention of a drink, was lower in Agat by 28–37%. The content of protein compounds, vitamins, macronutrients and trace elements in grain is essential for the technology of fermented beverages. It has been established that Agat is higher in amino acids than other varieties are: by 5.7% (husked) and by 18% (unhusked). The highest content of vitamins has been found in Agat rice (on average, by 9.4% more of them). Compared with the other cultivars, unhusked Agat rice is higher in the macronutrients and trace elements that are vital for yeast activity: calcium – by 28%, magnesium – by 24%, iron – by 10–18%, copper – by 16.6%. The optimal initial concentration of yeast cells in the wort is 3–5 million/cm3. When using husked rice, the acidity of the wort at the end of fermentation was higher by 7.6% than it was in the wort made with unhusked rice. When comparing different varieties of rice, the acidity values of the fermented wort did not differ significantly. All samples had high sensory qualities characteristic of fermented beverages.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the resilience and elastic properties of short pastry with the meals of soy, sunflower and milk thistle. Design/methodology/approach Recent studies in the emerging food technologies of short pastry with use of meals were considered. Their focus on the improvement of the functional peculiarities of short pastry and benefits for people were the defining characteristics of the studies. Findings Model food compositions have been developed from soybean meal, sunflower meal and milk thistle for adding them to semi-finished short pastry products. The technology of short pastry confectionery made from short pastry with oilseed meal has been scientifically substantiated and developed. The chemical composition of shortbread cookies with the use of oilseed meal was calculated. The developed technology increased protein content by 2.5 times, cellulose content – by six times, significantly increased mineralization in the developed confectionery products. The content of calcium increased by 172.9 mg, selenium – by 13.06 mcg, iodine – by 2.76 mcg and vitamin E by 2.4 mg. Practical implications The developed technology of short pastry with a model composition of the meal can be used in practice. The use of a meal composition is a promising direction to improve the brittleness of short pastry products. The developed pastry products made from short pastry with added meal can be introduced into catering establishments as functional products with improved biological value. Social implications Developed pastry products can be used as functional products with improved biological value, which is important for people’s health and has positive effects on the human body. Originality/value The use of meals of soy, sunflower and milk thistle in short pastry increases its nutritional and biological value, which improves the impact on the human body. The developed pastry products can be introduced as functional products with improved biological value, which is important for the improvement of people’s health in different countries of the world.
Вступ. Умови існування харчових підприємств на сучасному етапі визначаються наявністю діючої й результативної системи менеджменту безпечності та якості. Згідно з принципами НАССР аналіз небезпечних факторів необхідно проводити як щодо сировини, так і напівпродуктів, з метою виявлення можливих ризиків отримання невідповідної продукції. Проблема. Використання у виробництві безалкогольних напоїв соку цукрового сорго (СЦС) як основи в рецептурі продукту дасть змогу отримати високоякісний соковий напій, збагачений біологічно активними речовинами. Метою статті є аналіз безпечності та якості сусла на основі СЦС як напівпродукту, встановлення параметрів його пастеризації для отримання безпечних і високоякісних напоїв. Методи. Як об’єкт дослідження використано цукрове сорго сорту Фаворит. Для визначення фізико-хімічних та мікробіологічних показників сусла на основі СЦС і готового напою застосовано загальноприйняті та стандартизовані методи досліджень. Результати дослідження. Встановлено, що мікробіота соку цукрового сорго і сусла на його основі представлена переважно мезофільними аеробними та факультативно-анаеробними мікроорганізмами, спороутворювальними бактеріями й дріжджами. При цьому у соку, суслі та готовому напої відсутні бактерії групи кишкової палички (коліформи) й умовно-патогенні мікроорганізми, зокрема коагулазопозитивні стафілококи. Для забезпечення відповідності сусла та безалкогольного напою на його основі гігієнічним вимогам щодо вмісту мікроорганізмів і збереження у продукті важливих біологічно активних речовин похідної сировини встановлено режим пастеризації сусла: температура 78 ± 2.0 °С, тривалість 15–20 хв. Висновки. Отримане сусло на основі соку цукрового сорго може бути рекомендовано як безпечний напівпродукт для виробництва як сокових, так і ферментованих безалкогольних напоїв.
Introduction. It has been determined the influence of drinking running water purified by clinoptilolite, rock crystal and activated charcoal on the vitamin content of wort and kvass. Materials and methods. The kvass made by kvass rye wort fermentation with the help of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MP-10 was analyzed. The dry matter content was determined by the areometric method, the content of vitamins by the ability of test-cultures to grow in the presence of certain vitamins. Thiamine and riboflavin were determined by fluorometric method. Results and discussion. In the purified water, the total iron content was 0,01 mg/dm 3 , the total water hardness was 1,1 mmol/dm 3 , the permanganate oxidation was 0,5 mg O2/dm 3. The fermentation process was similar to both samples. While the total duration of fermentation of the experimental sample was 13% less, that is due to a decrease in the number of vitamins in the initial wort. The water mineral composition significantly influenced on the content of vitamins in the initial and fermented wort and kvass, in particular, the amount of thiamine and riboflavin in the prototype increased at an average 2.5 times, and the folic acid content at 5 times, that can be explained by the formation in the control sample of water insoluble complexes with bivalent metals. At using model solutions with an index of total water hardness of 5 mmol/dm 3 , the thiamine content in the fermented wort decreased by 6,7 times compared to the wort with demineralized water. To ensure high levels of vitamins in the kvass, in particular thiamine, riboflavin and folic acid, process water should have a total hardness no more than 1 mmol/dm 3 and contain no iron ions. Conclusions. The use of purified water provides the increase in the content of vitamins in the kvass and getting the product with their correlation physiologically acceptable to the human body.
The article is devoted to the improvement of the technology of meat products manufacturing with the usage of phytopreparations. The phytopreparation “Health”, on the basis of herbal additives of Chamomile, Hypericum, Oregano, Thyme and Calendula (marigolds) as preservatives in the production of cooked sausages, is developed. The ingredient composition is substantiated and the recipe of sausages is optimized with the usage of the developed phytopreparation. It is found that its use can increase the shelf life of sausages by 35%, increase the pH level and the proportion of bound moisture. Finished sausage products have acceptable organoleptic properties, higher nutritional value and meet safety requirements. The economic efficiency of production is determined, which increases the net profit by 14.3% and the level of profitability by 30.9%. The social effect of the use of such sausage products, which is to protect human health by the biological risk reduction associated with exposure to toxic microorganisms, is also found.
Background. The disadvantage of the two-product technology of alcohol and baker’s yeast from molasses is the need to limit the concentration of dry matter of the source medium to 22% and, accordingly, the level of alcohol accumulation in mature malt not more than 8.0% vol. to prevent deterioration of baker’s yeast. The consequence of this is the high specific cost of steam for bragorectification and increase the specific yield of post-alcohol molasses bard in comparison with single-product technology (obtaining only alcohol). Materials and methods. Raw materials, intermediates and final products were analyzed according to the methods adopted in science and practice of molasses alcohol technology. The dry matter content; pH of the medium; the content of alcohol in the brew, yeast biomass and unfermented sugars; the lifting power of yeast and their color in the resulting products were determined. Results. The possibility of reducing the volume of post-alcoholic molasses bard by returning it for the preparation of molasses bard without deteriorating the quality of baker’s yeast and alcohol yield, as well as by increasing the dry matter concentration of fermented wort from 22 (traditional technology) to 27% and accumulation of alcohol in mature brew up to 10–11% vol. has been experimentally proven. Conclusion. The presented research results provide grounds for the development of energy-saving low-waste two-stage technology of alcohol and baking yeast from molasses, which can be used to obtain high-quality baking yeast to increase the concentration of alcohol in mature malt by more than 10% vol. This will significantly reduce the steam for bragorectification of alcohol and the volume of contaminated and difficult to dispose of production waste – post-alcohol molasses bard. The implementation of such technology will be the next step in the greening of the joint production of alcohol and baker’s yeast from molasses.
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