The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of functional properties of the polysaccharide-based component and their application in developing edible film and coating for the food processing sector.
In this review study, approximately 271 research and review articles focusing on studies related to polysaccharide-based components and their film-forming properties. This article also focused on the application of polysaccharide-based edible film in the food sector.
From the literature reviewed, polysaccharide components and components-based edible film/coating is the biodegradable and eco-friendly packaging of the materials and directly consumed by the consumer with food. It has been reported that the polysaccharide components have excellent properties such as being nontoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal and with good nutrients. The polysaccharide-based edible film has lipid and gas barrier properties with excellent transparency and mechanical strength. In various studies, researchers worked on the development of polysaccharide-based edible film and coating by incorporating plant based natural antioxidants. This was primarily done for obtaining improved physical and chemical properties of the edible film and coating. In future, the technology of developing polysaccharide-based edible film and coating could be used for extending the shelf life and preserving the quality of fruits and vegetables at a commercial level. There is more need to understand the role of edible packaging and sustainability in the food and environment sector.
Through this review paper, possible applications of polysaccharide-based components and their function property in the formation of the edible film and their effect on fruits, vegetables and other food products are discussed after detailed studies of literature from thesis and journal article.
An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of prepared chitosan: pullulan (50:50) blend edible coating enriched with pomegranate peel extract on the quality, sensory attributes and shelf life of litchi fruit cv. Deshi throughout the 18 days storage period at room (23 ± 3ºC, RH-40-45%) and cold (4 ± 3ºC, RH-90-95%) temperature. The recorded results revealed that the application of chitosan:pullulan (50:50) blend edible coating exhibited significantly reduce the increasing physiological weight loss, TSS, acidity and browning (color) of litchi fruits during storage as compared to control litchi. Whereas the treated fruit showed lower decreasing weight loss at room (44.49 ± 0.30%) and 4ºC (10.41 ± 0.16%) temperature as compared to control litchi on 18 th days of storage. Increasing TSS & TA, decreasing pH, phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant activity were control by the treatment of edible coating. The sensory characteristics were recorded higher in treated litchi fruits on 9 th days of storage period at both storage conditions. The results of the sensory evaluation confirmed that the treatment of chitosan:pullulan blend edible coating could be effective to prolong the shelf life of litchi at both storage condition. Paired "t" test was used to the comparison between the control and treated litchi for both room and cold storage. Significance difference (P ≤ 0.05) and correlation was analyzed between the control and coated samples of litchi fruit during the storage period. Further study should be needed to evaluate the effect of chitosan and pullulan blend edible coating on other fruits and vegetables.
The aim of the present study was to examine the efficiency of chitosan-pullulan composite edible coating enriched with pomegranate peel extract (CP-PPE) on the quality and shelf life of tomatoes over 18 days of storage at 23 °C and 4 °C. The applied composite edible coating significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved postharvest quality (weight loss, maintained total soluble solids, titratable acidity, color, pH, and retained higher phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity) and sensory characteristics throughout the storage at both room and cold temperatures. On day 15, higher overall acceptability was observed in treated samples (6.27 ± 0.20) as compared to untreated (4.41 ± 0.39) at 23 °C. On day 18, the higher sensory scores were also recorded for treated samples (7.15 ± 0.1) compared to untreated (6.41 ± 0.14) at 4 °C. The shelf life of tomatoes was enhanced by 9 days at 23 °C and at 4 °C conditions; both types of samples were good up to the final day of storage.
The polysaccharide based composite biomaterial (coating) used in preserving fruits and vegetables during storage is attracting increased attention as it is biodegradable material that prolongs shelf life. In the present investigation, chitosan–pullulan (50:50) composite edible coating was prepared with pomegranate peel extract (0.02 g/mL) as an active antioxidant agent. The effect of treatment with pomegranate peel extract enriched chitosan–pullulan composite edible coating on the shelf life of mango fruits during 18 days of storage period at room (23 °C) and cold (4 °C) temperature was evaluated. Results of the present study demonstrated that the application of chitosan–pullulan composite edible coating significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influences the storage life of mango fruits at both storage temperatures. The chitosan–pullulan composite edible coating reduced the physiological loss in weight (PLW), and maintained total soluble solids (TSS), acidity and pH of coated mango fruits as compared to the control. In addition, fruit sensory quality such as freshness, color, taste and texture were also retained by the treatment. Furthermore, sustained firmness, phenolic content and antioxidant activity confirmed the effectiveness of the pomegranate peel extract enriched chitosan–pullulan composite edible coating on mango fruits. The phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of coated fruits were retained by pomegranate peel rich edible coating. Therefore, the chitosan–pullulan (50:50) combination with pomegranate peel extract can be used as an alternative preservation method to prolong the shelf life of mango fruits at room and cold storage conditions. However, more in-depth studies are required at farm and transit level without affecting the postharvest quality of mango fruits, providing more revenue for farmers and minimizing postharvest losses.
Bioactive compound characterization is an important steps for utilization of pomegranate peel waste as food and nutraceutical ingredients. In the present investigation the effects of different drying (freeze, tray-oven and sun) and solvents such as methanol, ethanol, water, acetone and hexane were investigated on the extraction and recovery of major bioactive compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid, quercetin and punicalagin) of pomegranate peel for two pomegranate varieties (i.e. Bhagwa and Ganesh) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the peel powder obtained by freeze drying (-45°C) method which extracted by methanol was higher amount in bioactive compounds compared to the other drying methods and solvents. Freeze dried peel powder of Bhagwa pomegranate showed higher amount of gallic acid (32.2 mg/g), ellagic acid (13.6 mg/g), punicalagin (15.2 mg/g) and quercetin (2.5 mg/g) with methanol solvent as compared to the other extract of Bhagwa and Ganesh varieties. Basis on the results of current study it can be concluded that the freeze drying method for drying pomegranate peel powder and methanol as a solvent are effectives to recover higher extraction of bioactive compounds which can be utilize to develop human and animal health.
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