Um estudo etnobotânico do uso de plantas medicinais foi realizado em Vista Alegre, distrito de Claro dos Poções-MG, de Novembro/2009 a Maio/2010. Em um total de 37 pessoas, 22 mulheres e 15 homens foram entrevistados. A idade dos participantes variou de 29 a 90 anos, onde 46% apresentaram idade entre 61 e 76 anos e 19% entre 77 e 90 anos. Foram identificadas 101 espécies, utilizadas como medicinais, distribuídas em 46 famílias botânicas em que, as mais representativas foram Fabaceae (17 spp.) e Asteraceae (10 spp.). As espécies Amburana cearensis (IR = 2,0) e Croton antisyphiliticus (IR = 1,6) tiveram maior importância relativa. A maioria das espécies é nativa do Brasil (85%). Os resultados mostram que os informantes têm um grande conhecimento sobre plantas medicinais nativas da região. Portanto, este trabalho pode representar uma forma de resgate cultural, já que este conhecimento encontra-se nas pessoas mais velhas.
RESUMO -Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento e sobrevivência de sete espécies arbóreas nativas em diferentes tratamentos, em uma área degradada na Reserva da COPASA (Juramento, MG). Para tal, foram utilizados aproximadamente 1,2 ha da área, onde foram plantadas 899 mudas, de sete espécies nativas (Anadenanthera colubrina, Copaifera langsdorffii, Dilodendron bipinatum, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Pterogyne nitens, Schinopsis brasiliensis e Senegalia polyphylla), acompanhadas durante 24 meses. A área foi dividida em cinco parcelas de 0,24 ha, que representaram os seguintes tratamentos: (T1) parcela semeada com capim (Brachiaria sp.); (T2) parcela onde as covas foram tratadas com condicionador de solo; (T3) parcela semeada com capim consorciado com leguminosa (Cajanus cajan); (T4) parcela semeada com leguminosa; e (T5) controle. A porcentagem de mortalidade foi maior no T2 e menor no T3, sendo as espécies C. langsdorffii (43,66%) e S. brasiliensis (11,64%) aquelas com maior e menor porcentagem de mortalidade, respectivamente. O crescimento (altura e diâmetro) das mudas foi maior no T2 (24,32 ± 26,05 cm e 0,51 ± 0,37 mm, respectivamente) e menor no T1 (10,82 ± 22,57 cm e 0,26 ± 0,27 mm; respectivamente). As espécies com maior crescimento em altura foram A. colubrina e S. polyphylla, já D. bipinatum e S. brasiliensis apresentaram maior crescimento em diâmetro. Pterogyne nitens apresentou o menor crescimento, além de alta mortalidade, mostrando baixa capacidade de estabelecimento em ambientes degradados.Palavras-chave: Restauração ambiental; Plantio de mudas: Mata seca.
SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF SEVEN NATIVE TREE SPECIES IN A DEGRADED AREA IN TROPICAL DRY FOREST, NORTHERN MINAS GERAISABSTRACT -This study aimed to evaluate the growth and survival of seven native tree species in different treatments in a degraded area at COPASA Reserve (Juramento, MG). Approximately 1.2 ha area was used, where 899 seedlings were planted of seven native species (Anadenanthera colubrina, Copaifera langsdorffii, Dilodendron bipinatum, Miracrodruon urundeuva, Pterogyne nitens, Schinopsis brasiliensis and Senegalia polyphylla) followed for 24 months. The area was divided into five plots of 0.24 ha, which represented the following treatments: (T1) plot sown with grass (Brachiaria sp.); (T2) plot where the pits were treated 1
This study monitored the survival of saplings planted according to different recovery models in a riparian forest of the Pandeiros river (Januária, MG). The models consisted of planting the saplings in lines of 2 or 4 m with presence (T2S and T4S, respectively) or absence of direct seeding (T2 and T4, respectively). We planted 16,259 saplings of 17 botanical families, 32 genera and 33 species. The saplings, in general, presented a survival rate after one year of 34.4% (±1.8).The species with highest survival rates were Jacaranda brasiliana, with 85.0% (±13.5) of survival, Anadenanthera colubrina, with 70.1% (±7.0), and Triplaris gardneriana, with 69.3% (±9.1). Survival did not vary between the models tested, probably due to the short evaluation period (12 months).
Tropical forests have played an important role as a carbon sink over time. However, the carbon dynamics of Brazilian non-Amazon tropical forests are still not well understood. Here, we used data from 32 tropical seasonal forest sites, monitored from 1987 to 2020 (mean site monitoring length, ~15 years) to investigate their long-term trends in carbon stocks and sinks. Our results highlight a long-term decline in the net carbon sink (0.13 Mg C ha−1 year−1) caused by decreasing carbon gains (2.6% by year) and increasing carbon losses (3.4% by year). The driest and warmest sites are experiencing the most severe carbon sink decline and have already moved from carbon sinks to carbon sources. Because of the importance of the terrestrial carbon sink for the global climate, policies are needed to mitigate the emission of greenhouse gases and to restore and protect tropical seasonal forests.
This study analyzed the floristic, structural variations and their relationships with soil variables in two stretches of riparian vegetation in an ecotonal region between savanna and semiarid zones. We following the hypothesis of despite the proximity between the sampled areas, soil conditions are distinct and lead to changes in structure and composition of the vegetation. This study was development at EPA of Pandeiros River, Minas Gerais, where we allocated 140 plots of 10 × 10 m (100 m2), with 10 m distance between plots, in two areas of riparian vegetation, named Larga and São Domingos (70 plots in each area), where we conducted the phytosociological survey and collected soil samples. In total, 751 arboreal individuals were sampled, distributed in 89 species and 35 botanical families. The areas differed strongly in structure and species composition, and showed floristic peculiarities and influence of surrounding vegetation. Despite of low distance between the sampled areas, these are singular environments influenced by different soils, by the mixed composition of the ecotonal area and the anthropogenic impacts to which they are exposed.
Soil is a relevant driver of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic composition at local scales. However, the mechanisms by which the soil act in these components or how these components interact with each other are not elucidated. Herein, we propose to understand the role of soil (environmental filtering) on the turnover of taxonomic and phylogenetic components and their role in determining the functional composition of Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF) communities. We sampled all the arboreal individuals with Diameter at Breast Height equal to or higher than 3 cm and collected soil variables of 25 units from five SDTF fragments located in the Brazilian Caatinga Domain. These data enabled us to obtain the taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic composition of each plot, which were then analyzed by Structural Equation Models jointly with the soil variables. Our results suggest that the soil conditions select specific phylogenetic lineages from a regional species pool according to the adaptive potential, which affects the distribution and abundance of species (taxonomic composition). However, it was not possible to establish a direct relationship between the phylogenetic composition and the taxonomic composition, possibly due to the use of labile functional traits in the analysis. We also found that soil acts directly on the functional composition, leading to a differential success of individuals which would represent a direct and indirect effect of taxonomic composition on the functional composition. Thus, we found community aspects result from different ecological mechanisms which act in a continuous and progressive way between functional, phylogenetic and taxonomic composition.
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