BackgroundAgeing leads to a decline in the function of the immune system, increasing the body's susceptibility to infections through the impairment of T-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells Denture stomatitis is a primary oral disease affecting elderly denture wearers. The major etiologic factor involved in this pathology is the infection by Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogen that causes local and disseminated diseases in immunosuppressed humans. Neutrophils play a critical role in the immune response against C. albicans and are continually present in the salivary fluid and in the blood. The aim of this study was to determine ageing-related changes in salivary and blood neutrophils and their potential implications in Candida-related denture stomatitis.ResultsOur results showed a lower number of neutrophils in the saliva from patients presenting Candida-related denture stomatitis in comparison to their matched controls. Furthermore, fewer neutrophils were isolated from the saliva of aged control individuals in comparison to matched younger subjects. CXCR1, CD62L and CD11b expression were significantly greater on systemic neutrophils from younger control individuals. Elderly individuals showed more apoptotic salivary neutrophils and lower GM-CSF levels than younger ones, regardless of the occurrence of Candida infection. On the other hand, CXCL-8 concentrations were higher in the saliva from elderly individuals. Besides, TNF-α was detected at elevated levels in the saliva from infected elderly subjects. Salivary neutrophils from elderly and young patients presented impaired phagocytic activity against C. albicans. However, just systemic neutrophils from elderly showed decreased phagocytosis when compared to the younger ones, regardless of the occurrence of infection. In addition, neutrophils from aged individuals and young patients presented low fungicidal activity.ConclusionThe data suggests that the Candida related-denture stomatitis is associated to neutrophils function deficiency, and ageing drastically appears to alter important characteristics of such cells, facilitating the establishment of this infection.
We have identified impaired neutrophils in elderly individuals which could be involved with Candida-related denture stomatitis (DS), an oral infection predominantly caused by Candida albicans, affecting especially elderly individuals using dental prosthesis. However, specific mechanisms performed by neutrophil contributing to the susceptibility of the elderly to DS are not fully understood. This study evaluated activation features of blood neutrophils from elderly and young individuals with DS. Blood neutrophils cultured with C. albicans from elderly subjects secreted decreased levels of CXCL8. However, C. albicans challenged-neutrophils from DS patients produced high IL-4 and IL-10, and low GM-CSF levels, regardless of age. Additional elastase activity of neutrophils from both elderly groups was detected after incubation with C. albicans, but only neutrophils from elderly DS demonstrated high myeloperoxidase activity. Therefore, DS patients have affected neutrophils, and the advance of age intensifies these damages. In summary, individuals with Candida-related denture stomatitis presented variation in the neutrophil phenotype and activation. Such alterations were more intense in neutrophils from infected elderly individuals.
We previously showed that neutrophils from patients with Candida-related denture stomatitis exhibited damaged function, and the advance in age intensified this condition. Because such alterations had been determined in elderly people that were not denture wearers, the purpose of this study was to clarify functional and phenotypic characteristics of neutrophils from elderly denture wearers (EDW) and young denture wearers (YDW) without oral lesion. We enrolled 20 denture wearers (12 EDW and 8 YDW) and determined the positivity of Candida species on maxillary prosthesis and palate. Additionally, blood and salivary neutrophils were evaluated. Furthermore, cytokines and chemokines salivary levels were detected. YDW presented higher positivity of Candida albicans than elderly ones. However, blood neutrophils from EDW expressed less CXCR1, CD62L and CD11b and had lower C. albicans phagocytosis than YDW. Although myeloperoxidase and elastase activity was significantly higher in C. albicans-stimulated blood neutrophils from elderly, they produced high levels of IL-10 and low levels of Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Despite apoptosis rate of salivary neutrophils was enhanced, these cells were at a high number in YDW. GM-CSF and IL10 were lower in saliva from elderly group. These data confirmed that ageing affects blood and salivary neutrophils and could predispose elderly to persistent oral infections.
Fcγ receptors on aging neutrophilsObjective: Neutrophils are key effector cells of the innate immune system.They recognize antigens through membrane receptors, which are expressed during their maturation and activation. Neutrophils express FcγRII (CD32), FcγRIII (CD16), and FcγRI (CD64) after being activated by different factors such as cytokines and bacterial products. These receptors are involved with phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized microbes and enhance defense mechanisms.Based on that, our study seeks to compare the expression of FcγRII, FcγRIII, FcγRI, and CD11b on neutrophils from elderly and young subjects and their expression after in vitro activation with cytokines and LPS. Methodology: Neutrophils were isolated from human peripheral blood and from mice bone marrow by density gradient. After isolation, FCγRs expression was immediately analyzed by flow cytometry or after in vitro stimulation. Results:In freshly isolated cells, the percentage of FcγRIIIb + and CD11b + neutrophils were higher in samples from young individuals; FcγRIIIa expression was more prominent on aged neutrophils; FcγRIA expression was similar in all samples analyzed. Exposure to CXCL8 and LPS resulted in a higher percentage of FcγRIa + neutrophils on elderly individuals' samples but lower when compared with neutrophils from young donors. We observed that LPS caused an increase in FcγRIIa expression on aging human neutrophils. In contrast, FcγRIIIb expression in response to CXCL8 and LPS stimulation was not altered in the four groups. CD11b expression was lower in neutrophils from elderly individuals even in response to LPS and CXCL8. In mice, we observed differences only regarding CD11b expression, which was increased on aged neutrophils. LPS exposure caused an increase in all FcγRs. Conclusions:Our results suggest that, in humans, the overall pattern of FcγR expression and integrin CD11b are altered during aging and immunosenescence might contribute to age-related infection.
Candida albicans e estomatite por dentadura: avaliação da presença do fungo na lesão, na prótese total superior e no sangue BAURU 2009 CARINE ERVOLINO DE OLIVEIRACandida albicans e estomatite por dentadura: avaliação da presença do fungo na lesão, na prótese total superior e no sangue Autorizo exclusivamente para fins acadêmicos e científicos, a reprodução total ou parcial desta dissertação, por processos fotocopiadores e outros meios eletrônicos. Assinatura: Bauru, de de 2009Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da FOB-USP Protocolo n°: Data: OLIVEIRA, CARINE ERVOLINO Ol4cCandida albicans e estomatite por dentadura:avaliação da presença do fungo na lesão, na prótese total superior e no sangue / Carine Ervolino de Oliveira. Candida albicans and denture stomatitis: evaluation of the presence of yeast in the lesion, upper denture and blood albicans. ABSTRACT
This study isolated and quantified intestinal bacteria of children with cleft palate before and after palatoplasty. A prospective study was conducted from May 2007 to September 2008 on 18 children with cleft palate, aged one to four years, of both genders, attending a tertiary cleft center in Brazil for palatoplasty, to analyze the effect of surgical palate repair on the concentration of anaerobes Bacteroides sp, Bifidobacterium sp and microaerophiles Lactobacillus sp in feces of infants with cleft palate before and 24 hours after treatment with cefazolin for palatoplasty. There was significant reduction of Lactobacillus sp (p < 0.002), Bacteroides sp (p < 0.001) and Bifidobacterium sp (p = 0.021) after palatoplasty, revealing that surgery and utilization of cefazolin significantly influenced the fecal microbiota comparing collections before and after surgery. However, due to study limitations, it was not possible to conclude that other isolated factors, such as surgical stress, anesthetics and other medications used in palatoplasty might have a significant influence on the microbiota. Considering the important participation of the intestinal microbiota on both local and systemic metabolic and immunological activities of the host, professionals should be attentive to the possible influence of these changes in patients submitted to cleft repair.
BackgroundThis study investigated the association of Robin Sequence with ABO and RhD blood group phenotypes.MethodsA retrospective cross-sectional study was performed of a cohort of Robin Sequence patients of the Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais – Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Brazil. The study group was composed of 339 individuals of both genders with Robin Sequence referred for specific treatment. A control group was composed of 1780 individuals without syndromes. The groups were compared using the Pearson’ chi-square test (χ2) with statistical significance being defined for an alpha error of 5% (p-value < 0.05).ResultsA comparison of gender found a significant difference for the AB phenotype between groups (p-value = 0.007). Comparing blood type by gender there was no significant difference within the same group (p-value = 0.117 and 0.388 respectively, for Robin Sequence and the control group). When comparing the AB blood type between groups, there was no difference for females (p-value = 0.577), but there was a significant difference for males (p-value = 0.0029).ConclusionsThis study showed that the population with Robin Sequence had different patterns related to gender concerning the phenotypic distribution of ABO and RhD blood group phenotypes. Robin Sequence is more common among females. The AB phenotype was significantly higher in males with Robin Sequence than in males of the Control Group. The prevalence of the RhD-negative phenotype is higher in individuals with Robin Sequence. This result suggests a possible association of ABO and RhD phenotypes with Robin Sequence that should be better investigated by molecular studies, as it deserves greater attention.
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