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We consider the application of the theory of symmetries of coupled ordinary differential equations to the case of reparametrisation invariant Lagrangians quadratic in the velocities; such Lagrangians encompass all minisuperspace models. We find that, in order to acquire the maximum number of symmetry generators, one must (a) consider the lapse N (t) among the degrees of freedom and (b) allow the action of the generator on the Lagrangian and/or the equations of motion to produce a multiple of the constraint, rather than strictly zero. The result of this necessary modification of the standard theory (concerning regular systems) is that the Liepoint symmetries of the equations of motion are exactly the variational symmetries (containing the time reparametrisation symmetry) plus the well known scaling symmetry. These variational symmetries are seen to be the simultaneous conformal Killing fields of both the metric and the potential, thus coinciding with the conditional symmetries defined in phase space. In a parametrisation of the lapse for which the potential becomes constant, the generators of the aforementioned symmetries become the Killing fields of the scaled supermetric and the homothetic field respectively.

Using a remarkable mapping from the original (3+1)dimensional Skyrme model to the Sine-Gordon model, we construct the first analytic examples of Skyrmions as well as of Skyrmions-anti-Skyrmions bound states within a finite box in 3+1 dimensional flat space-time. An analytic upper bound on the number of these Skyrmions-anti-Skyrmions bound states is derived. We compute the critical isospin chemical potential beyond which these Skyrmions cease to exist. With these tools, we also construct topologically protected time-crystals: time-periodic configurations whose time-dependence is protected by their non-trivial winding number. These are striking realizations of the ideas of Shapere and Wilczek. The critical isospin chemical potential for these time-crystals is determined.

A conditional symmetry is defined, in the phase-space of a quadratic in velocities constrained action, as a simultaneous conformal symmetry of the supermetric and the superpotential. It is proven that such a symmetry corresponds to a variational (Noether) symmetry.The use of these symmetries as quantum conditions on the wave-function entails a kind of selection rule. As an example, the minisuperspace model ensuing from a reduction of the Einstein -Hilbert action by considering static, spherically symmetric configurations and r as the independent dynamical variable, is canonically quantized. The conditional symmetries of this reduced action are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Their integrability conditions dictate, at a first stage, that only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed. At a second stage one is led to the unique Casimir invariant, which is the product of the remaining two, as the only possible second condition on Ψ. The uniqueness of the dynamical evolution implies the need to identify this quadratic integral of motion to the reparametrisation generator. This can be achieved by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function, exploiting the freedom to arbitrarily rescale it. In this particular parametrization the measure is chosen to be the determinant of the supermetric. The solutions to the combined Wheeler -DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are found and seen to depend on the product of the two "scale factors".

We describe a distributed simulation tool which addresses the unique needs for the simulation of emergency response scenarios. The simulation tool adopts the multi-agent paradigm, so as to facilitate the modelling of diverse and autonomous agents, and it provides mechanisms for the interaction of the entities that are being simulated. It operates in a distributed fashion to reduce the simulation time required for such large-scale systems. The simulation tool represents the individuals that need to be evacuated, the resources that contribute to the evacuation including human rescuers, and other active resources and entities which may include robots and which can autonomously interact with the environment and with each other and take individual or collaborative decisions. We illustrate the tool with an application and compare the results for both centralized and distributed execution. Our results also show the significant reduction in execution time that is achieved for different degrees of distribution of the simulator on multiple servers.

We use the conditional symmetry approach to study the r-evolution of a minisuperspace spherically symmetric model both at the classical and quantum level. After integration of the coordinates t, θ and φ in the gravitational plus electromagnetic action the configuration space dependent dynamical variables turn out to correspond to the r-dependent metric functions and the electrostatic field. In the context of the formalism for constrained systems (Dirac -Bergmann, ADM) with respect to the radial coordinate r, we set up a point-like reparameterization invariant Lagrangian. It is seen that, in the constant potential parametrization of the lapse, the corresponding minisuperspace is a Lorentzian three-dimensional flat manifold which obviously admits six Killing vector fields plus a homothetic one. The weakly vanishing r-Hamiltonian guarantees that the phase space quantities associated to the six Killing fields are linear holonomic integrals of motion. The homothetic field provides one more rheonomic integral of motion. These seven integrals are shown to comprise the entire classical solution space, i.e. the space-time of a Reissner-Nordström black hole, the rreparametrization invariance since one dependent variable remains unfixed, and the two quadratic relations satisfied by the integration constants. We then quantize the model using the quantum analogues of the classical conditional symmetries, and show that the existence of such symmetries yields solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which, as a semiclassical analysis shows, exhibit a good correlation with the classical regime. We use the resulting wave functions to investigate the possibility of removing the classical singularities.

We construct the first analytic examples of topologically non-trivial solutions of the (3+1)dimensional U (1) gauged Skyrme model within a finite box in (3+1)-dimensional flat space-time. There are two types of gauged solitons. The first type corresponds to gauged Skyrmions living within a finite volume. The second corresponds to gauged time-crystals (smooth solutions of the U (1) gauged Skyrme model whose periodic time-dependence is protected by a winding number). The notion of electromagnetic duality can be extended for these two types of configurations in the sense that the electric and one of the magnetic components can be interchanged. These analytic solutions show very explicitly the Callan-Witten mechanism (according to which magnetic monopoles may "swallow" part of the topological charge of the Skyrmion) since the electromagnetic field contribute directly to the conserved topological charge of the gauged Skyrmions. As it happens in superconductors, the magnetic field is suppressed in the core of the gauged Skyrmions. On the other hand, the electric field is strongly suppresed in the core of gauged time crystals.

We present the solution space for the case of a minimally coupled scalar field with arbitrary potential in a FLRW metric. This is made possible due to the existence of a nonlocal integral of motion corresponding to the conformal Killing field of the two-dimensional minisuperspace metric. The case for both spatially flat and non flat are studied first in the presence of only the scalar field and subsequently with the addition of non interacting perfect fluids. It is verified that this addition does not change the general form of the solution, but only the particular expressions of the scalar field and the potential. The results are applied in the case of parametric dark energy models where we derive the scalar field equivalence solution for some proposed models in the literature. *

We construct exact, regular and topologically non-trivial configurations of the coupled Einsteinnonlinear sigma model in (3+1) dimensions. The ansatz for the nonlinear SU (2) field is regular everywhere and circumvents Derrick's theorem because it depends explicitly on time, but in such a way that its energy-momentum tensor is compatible with a stationary metric. Moreover, the SU (2) configuration cannot be continuously deformed to the trivial Pion vacuum as it possesses a non-trivial winding number. We reduce the full coupled 4D Einstein nonlinear sigma model system to a single second order ordinary differential equation. When the cosmological constant vanishes, such master equation can be further reduced to an Abel equation. Two interesting regular solutions correspond to a stationary traversable wormhole (whose only "exotic matter" is a negative cosmological constant) and a (3+1)-dimensional cylinder whose (2+1)-dimensional section is a Lorentzian squashed sphere. The Klein-Gordon equation in these two families of spacetimes can be solved in terms of special functions. The angular equation gives rise to the Jacobi polynomials while the radial equation belongs to the Poschl-Teller family. The solvability of the Poschl-Teller problem implies non-trivial quantization conditions on the parameters of the theory.

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