Landslide classification and identification along Karakorum Highway (KKH) is still challenging due to constraints of proposed approaches, harsh environment, detail analysis, complicated natural landslide process due to tectonic activities, and data availability problems. A comprehensive landslide inventory and a landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) along the Karakorum Highway were created in recent research. The extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) and random forest (RF) models were used to compare and forecast the association between causative parameters and landslides. These advanced machine learning (ML) models can measure environmental issues and risks for any area on a regional scale. Initially, 74 landslide locations were determined along the KKH to prepare the landslide inventory map using different data. The landslides were randomly divided into two sets for training and validation at a proportion of 7/3. Fifteen landslide conditioning variables were produced for susceptibility mapping. The interferometric synthetic aperture radar persistent scatterer interferometry (PS-InSAR) technique investigated the deformation movement of extracted models in the susceptible zones. It revealed a high line of sight (LOS) deformation velocity in both models’ sensitive zones. For accuracy comparison, the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve approach was used, which showed 93.44% and 92.22% accuracy for XGBoost and RF, respectively. The XGBoost method produced superior results, combined with PS-InSAR results to create a new LSM for the area. This improved susceptibility model will aid in mitigating the landslide disaster, and the results may assist in the safe operation of the highway in the research area.
<p>The aim of this study was to evaluate diuretic activity of aqueous methanolic extract of <em>Euphorbia granulate</em> in rats. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Group I served as reference, Group II as standard and Group III, IV and V served as test. The three doses of extract (30, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were given to rats (i.p) in acute diuretic model. Furosemide (10 mg/kg i.p) was used as standard drug. The extract induced diuretic effects and induced electrolytes excretion in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. The extract (100 and 50 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.01) increased the volume of urine in comparison to control group. Similarly, the excretion of potassium and sodium were also significantly (p<0.05) increased following extract administration. However, there was no significant change in the pH of urine samples of the extract-treated group compared with control. The result of this study thus offers support to the traditional folker use of this plant as a diuretic agent.</p><p> </p>
Karachi is located in the southern part of Pakistan along the Arabian Sea coast. Relevant institutions are concerned about the possibility of ground subsidence in the city, contributing to the comparative sea-level rise. So yet, no direct measurement of the subsidence rate and its relation to city submergence danger has been made. SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry is a powerful method for obtaining millimeter-accurate surface displacement measurements. The Sentinel-1 satellite data provide extensive geographical coverage, regular acquisitions, and open access. This research used the persistent scatterer interferometry synthetic aperture radar (PS-InSAR) technology with Sentinel-1 SAR images to monitor ground subsidence in Karachi, Pakistan. The SARPROZ software was used to analyze a series of Sentinel-1A images taken from November 2019 to December 2020 along ascending and descending orbit paths to assess land subsidence in Karachi. The cumulative deformation in Line of Sight (LOS) ranged from − 68.91 to 76.06 mm/year, whereas the vertical deformation in LOS ranged from − 67.66 to 74.68 mm/year. The data reveal a considerable rise in subsidence from 2019 to 2020. The general pattern of subsidence indicated very high values in the city center, whereas locations outside the city center saw minimal subsidence. Overall, the proposed technique effectively maps, identifies, and monitors land areas susceptible to subsidence. This will allow for more efficient planning, construction of surface infrastructure, and control of subsidence-induced risks.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.