This paper analyses land tenure reform in South Africa from the perspective of land redistribution and restitution projects. It takes the absence of a clearly defined tenure reform in the country as its point of departure to argue that land redistribution and restitution projects serve as a vehicle through which forms of land tenure in post-apartheid South Africa are expressed. There is dissonance between the official position on giving land to large groups under the legal entity of the CPA and the practice and preferences at project sites. The paper suggests that a progressive land tenure reform policy requires a bottom-up approach that takes into consideration various ways in which beneficiaries of land reform could own and use land.
In this chapter, the authors problematize the narrative that South Africans are xenophobic through a critical historiographical and philosophical critique. They disentangle state agency from civil society agency (organized and non-organized) action and reject this narrative as false, and as an opportunistic obfuscation of problems confronting South Africa and the African continent in general. They suggest, rather, that the South African government or the state is xenophobic, as state ideology in Africa does not always translate into popular ideology in society. State ideology is often resisted and militated against by society in various ways both consciously and unconsciously, as the two arise from different social formation processes.
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