A B S T R A C TThis paper is devoted to study the effect of saturation, with distilled water, on AC electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of a fully and partially saturated hematitic sandstone sample (Aswan area, Egypt). The saturation of the sample was changed from full saturation to partial saturation by air drying. Complex resistivity measurements at room temperature (∼16 • C) were performed in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. We used non-polarizing Cu/CuSO 4 gel electrodes. Experimental electrical spectra indicate, generally, that the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant vary strongly with water saturation and frequency. The low-frequency electrical conductivity and dielectric constant are supposed to be mainly controlled by surface conduction and polarization of the electrical double layer. Power law behaviours with frequency were noticed. The change in electrical conductivity and dielectric constant with increasing water content is fast at low saturations and slow at high saturations. The behaviour of the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant, with increasing water content, was argued to be the orientational polarization of bound water for very low saturations, displacement of the excess surface charges for relatively low saturations and free exchange of excess ions in double layer with the bulk electrolyte and generation of transient diffusional potentials, which lag behind the applied field for high saturations in addition to membrane polarization on clay and at inter-grain and grain surface water throats having selective charge transport properties. Also, from the data a semi-percolation behaviour was found that has a peak of dielectric constant at a certain concentration and an abrupt change in conductivity at another saturation.
In this study, Pt (of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 wt % loadings) was supported on mesoporous silica surface via microwave-assisted solution (MAS) method or rotary chemical evaporation (RCE) method in the in situ reduction step. The as-synthesized Pt nanocatalysts were characterized through XRD, XRF, TGA/ DSC, TEM, N 2 -adsorption-desorption, H 2 -pulse titration and electrical conductivity techniques. The samples prepared by MAS method exhibited higher surface area and a better dispersion profile of Pt NPs, of average sizes not exceeding 10 nm with increasing the Pt loading. In contrast, although RCE method showed higher efficacy in decomposing the used precursor, uneven distribution of larger Pt nanoparticles (≥ 33 nm) was displayed. Electrical properties in terms of AC conductivity and dielectric constant confirmed the enhancement of even distribution of smaller Pt NPs with higher concentration of grain boundaries affected by microwave electromagnetic radiations. Highly mobile electrons and lattice vibrations (phonons) were favored, as compared with aggregated NPs produced during RCE method. The TOF values calculated for reactions to selectively produce ethylene (from ethanol) or benzene (from cyclohexane) decreased with Pt loadings on catalyst samples synthesized by MAS method. The highly dispersed NPs (of 3-7 nm) seemed to be responsible of the activity in both reactions, tending probably to be structure insensitive. However, samples reduced by RCE method, with enlarged average sizes of surface Pt NPs (approaching 15.5 nm), exhibited increasing TOF values with Pt loading, i.e., turning the reactions most probably to be structure sensitive.
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