We conducted a meta analysis of Parkinson’s disease genome-wide association studies using a common set of 7,893,274 variants across 13,708 cases and 95,282 controls. Twenty-six loci were identified as genome-wide significant; these and six additional previously reported loci were then tested in an independent set of 5,353 cases and 5,551 controls. Of the 32 tested SNPs, 24 replicated, including 6 novel loci. Conditional analyses within loci show four loci including GBA, GAK/DGKQ, SNCA, and HLA contain a secondary independent risk variant. In total we identified and replicated 28 independent risk variants for Parkinson disease across 24 loci. While the effect of each individual locus is small, a risk profile analysis revealed a substantial cummulative risk in a comparison highest versus lowest quintiles of genetic risk (OR=3.31, 95% CI: 2.55, 4.30; p-value = 2×10−16). We also show 6 risk loci associated with proximal gene expression or DNA methylation.
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have increased the scope of biological knowledge about the disease over the past decade. We sought to use the largest aggregate of GWAS data to identify novel risk loci and gain further insight into disease etiology. Methods We performed the largest meta-GWAS of PD to date, involving the analysis of 7.8M SNPs in 37.7K cases, 18.6K UK Biobank proxy-cases (having a first degree relative with PD), and 1.4M controls. We carried out a meta-analysis of this GWAS data to nominate novel loci. We then evaluated heritable risk estimates and predictive models using this data. We also utilized large gene expression and methylation resources to examine possible functional consequences as well as tissue, cell type and biological pathway enrichments for the identified risk factors. Additionally we examined shared genetic risk between PD and other phenotypes of interest via genetic correlations followed by Mendelian randomization. Findings We identified 90 independent genome-wide significant risk signals across 78 genomic regions, including 38 novel independent risk signals in 37 loci. These 90 variants explained 16-36% of the heritable risk of PD depending on prevalence. Integrating methylation and expression data within a Mendelian randomization framework identified putatively associated genes at 70 risk signals underlying GWAS loci for follow-up functional studies. Tissue-specific expression enrichment analyses suggested PD loci were heavily brain-enriched, with specific neuronal cell types being implicated from single cell data. We found significant genetic correlations with brain volumes, smoking status, and educational attainment. Mendelian randomization between cognitive performance and PD risk showed a robust association. Interpretation These data provide the most comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of PD to date by revealing many additional PD risk loci, providing a biological context for these risk factors, and demonstrating that a considerable genetic component of this disease remains unidentified. Funding See supplemental materials (Text S2). lead to earlier detection and refined diagnostics, which may help improve clinical trials (4). The generation of copious amounts of public summary statistics created by this effort relating to both the GWAS and subsequent analyses of gene expression and methylation patterns may be of use to investigators planning follow-up functional studies in stem cells or other cellular screens, allowing them to prioritize targets more efficiently using our data as additional evidence. We hope our findings may have some downstream clinical impact in the future such as improved patient stratification for clinical trials and genetically informed drug targets.
Common variant genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have, to date, identified >24 risk loci for Parkinson’s disease (PD). To discover additional loci, we carried out a GWAS comparing 6,476 PD cases with 302,042 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with a recent study of over 13,000 PD cases and 95,000 controls at 9,830 overlapping variants. We then tested 35 loci (P < 1 × 10−6) in a replication cohort of 5,851 cases and 5,866 controls. We identified 17 novel risk loci (P < 5 × 10−8) in a joint analysis of 26,035 cases and 403,190 controls. We used a neurocentric strategy to assign candidate risk genes to the loci. We identified protein-altering or cis–expression quantitative trait locus (cis-eQTL) variants in linkage disequilibrium with the index variant in 29 of the 41 PD loci. These results indicate a key role for autophagy and lysosomal biology in PD risk, and suggest potential new drug targets for PD.
High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic, pulse pressure) to date in over one million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also reveal shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.
The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project–imputed genotype data in up to ~370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10−8) for age at menarche, a milestone in female pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ~7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ~25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ~250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In aggregate, our findings highlight the complexity of the genetic regulation of puberty timing and support causal links with cancer susceptibility.
Summary Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with ∼700 common associated variants identified so far through genome-wide association studies. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor allele frequencies (range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 cm/allele (e.g. in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), >10 times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height-increasing alleles of STC2 (+1-2 cm/allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (e.g. ADAMTS3, IL11RA, NOX4) and pathways (e.g. proteoglycan/glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate to large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many genetic variants underlying complex traits. Many detected genetic loci harbor variants that associate with multiple-even distinct-traits. Most current analysis approaches focus on single traits, even though the final results from multiple traits are evaluated together. Such approaches miss the opportunity to systemically integrate the phenome-wide data available for genetic association analysis. In this study, we propose a general approach that can integrate association evidence from summary statistics of multiple traits, either correlated, independent, continuous, or binary traits, which might come from the same or different studies. We allow for trait heterogeneity effects. Population structure and cryptic relatedness can also be controlled. Our simulations suggest that the proposed method has improved statistical power over single-trait analysis in most of the cases we studied. We applied our method to the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT) African ancestry samples for three blood pressure traits and identified four loci (CHIC2, HOXA-EVX1, IGFBP1/IGFBP3, and CDH17; p < 5.0 × 10(-8)) associated with hypertension-related traits that were missed by a single-trait analysis in the original report. Six additional loci with suggestive association evidence (p < 5.0 × 10(-7)) were also observed, including CACNA1D and WNT3. Our study strongly suggests that analyzing multiple phenotypes can improve statistical power and that such analysis can be executed with the summary statistics from GWASs. Our method also provides a way to study a cross phenotype (CP) association by using summary statistics from GWASs of multiple phenotypes.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.