Preventive and educational programs directed to former elite athletes in the areas of healthy living are required. This is particularly relevant as obesity and health-related problems are observed in retired athletes, especially in those whose current levels of physical activity are below the recommendations. During their sports career, elite athletes are supported by a multidisciplinary team; upon retirement, no support is provided for the transition to a different lifestyle. So far, no program has been implemented to promote sustained healthy lifestyle behaviors in the post-career transition and evidence is lacking for such an intervention. Firstly, we aim to determine if Champ4life, a 1-year lifestyle intervention targeting inactive former athletes with overweight and obesity, is effective for reducing total and abdominal fat. Secondly, our purpose is to assess the effectiveness of the intervention on the levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior, resting energy expenditure, cardio-metabolic markers, physical fitness, energy balance components, eating self-regulation markers, and quality of life over 12 months. Champ4life is an evidence- and theory-based program using a randomized control trial design (intervention vs. control group) that will be conducted on 94 inactive former elite athletes with overweight and obesity. The first four months of the Champ4Life program include a nutritional appointment and 12 weekly, 90-min sessions. Classroom sessions seek to provide participants with key information and a toolbox of behavior change techniques to initiate and sustain long-term lifestyle changes. Participants will undergo baseline, 4-month, and 12-month measurements of body composition (primary outcomes), resting energy expenditure, physical fitness, metabolic markers, energy balance related-markers, and quality of life (secondary outcome). This trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of the Champ4life program, a pioneer lifestyle intervention for retired athletes, offering tools for sustained changes in physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet, aiming to improve body composition and overall health-related markers.
These results strongly support a similar antigenic profile for infliximab originator and CT-P13, and point toward a safe switching between the two drugs in anti-drug antibody negative patients.
Biological therapies, such as recombinant proteins, are nowadays amongst the most promising approaches towards precision medicine. One of the most innovative methodologies currently available aimed at improving the production yield of recombinant proteins with minimization of costs relies on the combination of in silico studies to predict and deepen the understanding of the modified proteins with an experimental approach. The work described herein aims at the design and production of a biomimetic vector containing the single-chain variable domain fragment (scFv) of an anti-HER2 antibody fragment as a targeting motif fused with HIV gp41. Molecular modeling and docking studies were performed to develop the recombinant protein sequence. Subsequently, the DNA plasmid was produced and HEK-293T cells were transfected to evaluate the designed vector. The obtained results demonstrated that the plasmid construction is robust and can be expressed in the selected cell line. The multidisciplinary integrated in silico and experimental strategy adopted for the construction of a recombinant protein which can be used in HER2+-targeted therapy paves the way towards the production of other therapeutic proteins in a more cost-effective way.
Background: An increasing body of evidence indicates that the phase angle (PhA) can be applied as a marker of nutritional status, disease prognosis, and mortality probability. Still, it is not known whether PhA can be used as an indicator of muscular quantity and strength and maximal aerobic capacity in overweight/obese former highly active individuals, an understudied population. This study aimed to analyze the association between PhA with skeletal muscle mass, maximal isometric strength, and maximal aerobic capacity through VO2max, in overweight/obese and inactive former athletes. Methods: Cross-sectional information of 94 (62 males) former adult athletes (age: 43.1 ± 9.4 years old; body mass index: 31.4 ± 4.8 kg/m2) taking part in a weight-loss clinical trial was analyzed. Total fat and fat-free mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, while skeletal muscle mass was predicted from appendicular lean soft tissue. Values for upper- and lower-body maximal isometric strength were assessed by handgrip and leg press dynamometry. VO2max was determined by indirect calorimetry through a graded exercise test performed on a treadmill. Results: PhA was associated with skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.564, p < 0.001), upper-body strength (r = 0.556, p < 0.001), lower-body strength (r = 0.422, p < 0.001), and VO2max (r = 0.328, p = 0.013). These relationships remained significant for skeletal muscle mass (β = 2.158, p = 0.001), maximal isometric strength (upper-body: β = 2.846, p = 0.012; low-er-body: β = 24.209, p = 0.041) after adjusting for age, sex, and fat mass but not for VO2max (β = −0.163, p = 0.098). Conclusion: Our findings indicated that former athletes with higher values of PhA exhibited greater muscle mass and strength, despite sex, age, and body composition, which suggests that this simple raw BI parameter can be utilized as an indicator of muscle quantity and functionality in overweight/obese former athletes.
ObjectivesMany athletes struggle in managing the end of their career, often gaining weight and adopting unhealthy lifestyles. Lifestyle programmes targeting former athletes who have gained substantial fat mass (FM) postsports career are lacking. We studied the effects of the Champ4Life programme on body composition and other health-related outcomes in former elite athletes with overweight or obesity.MethodsNinety-four former athletes(42.4±7.3 y, 34.0% female) were recruited and randomly assigned to either an intervention group (IG; n=49) or a control group (CG; n=45). The IG attended 12 educational sessions addressing physical activity, weight management and nutrition. They also had a nutrition appointment aimed to prescribe a moderate caloric deficit(~300–500 kcal/day). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. The Short-Form Health Survey-36 questionnaire was used to measure general health-related quality of life. Blood samples were collected to assess cardiometabolic health parameters.ResultsAt 12 months, the IG lost more weight (estimated difference (ED)=−5.3 kg; −6.9 to −3.8), total FM (ED=−4.1 kg; −5.4 to −2.8) and abdominal FM (ED=−0.49 kg; −0.64 to −0.33) than did the CG (p’s<0.001). Cardiometabolic health markers also improved significantly (p<0.05) more in the IG at 12 months (insulin (ED=−4.9 μU/mL;−8.0 to −1.8); homoeostatic model assessment (ED=−1.2; −2.1 to −0.4); total cholesterol (ED=−21.8 mg/dL; -35.4 to −8.2); low-density lipoprotein (ED=18.2 mg/dL;−29.2 to −7.1)), as did quality-of-life dimensions (physical functioning (ED=11.7; 6.5 to 16.9); physical role (ED=17.6; 2.1 to 33.0); general health (ED=19.4; 11.4 to 27.4); vitality (ED=13.3; 5.3 to 21.3) and mental health (ED=12.3; 4.1 to 20.6)).ConclusionsThe Champ4Life programme was effective in substantially reducing total and abdominal FM while preserving fat-free mass and improving health-related markers. These findings will enable evidence-based decisions when implementing lifestyle interventions targeting retired elite athletes.Trial registeration numberNCT03031951.
Consumption of lipid-rich foods can increase the blood cholesterol content. β-glucans have hypocholesterolemic effect. However, subtle changes in their molecular branching can influence bioactivity. Therefore, a comparative investigation of the cholesterol-lowering potential of two β-glucans with different branching patterns and a cholesterol-lowering drug, namely simvastatin was undertaken employing the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Fish were allocated to 5 dietary treatments; a control group, a high cholesterol group, two β-glucan groups, and a simvastatin group. We investigated plasma total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels, histological changes in the tissues, and explored intestinal transcriptomic changes induced by the experimental diets. Dietary cholesterol likely caused the suppression of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, induced dysfunction of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and altered the histomorphology of the intestine. The two β-glucans and simvastatin significantly abated the rise in plasma cholesterol levels and restored the expression of specific genes to alleviate the endoplasmic reticulum-related effects induced by the dietary cholesterol. Furthermore, the distinct patterns of transcriptomic changes in the intestine elicited by the oat and microalga β-glucans impacted processes such as fatty acid metabolism, protein catabolic processes, and nuclear division. Oat and microalgal β-glucans also altered the pattern of lipid deposition in the liver. Our study provides insights into the effectiveness of different β-glucans to alleviate dysfunctions in lipid metabolism caused by dietary cholesterol.
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