In a single-group study of sofosbuvir combined with peginterferon-ribavirin, patients with predominantly genotype 1 or 4 HCV infection had a rate of sustained virologic response of 90% at 12 weeks. In a noninferiority trial, patients with genotype 2 or 3 infection who received either sofosbuvir or peginterferon with ribavirin had nearly identical rates of response (67%). Adverse events were less frequent with sofosbuvir than with peginterferon. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; FISSION and NEUTRINO ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01497366 and NCT01641640, respectively.).
Mice with targeted deletion of the gene for interleukin-10 (IL-10) spontaneously develop enterocolitis when maintained in conventional conditions but develop only colitis when kept in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) environments. This study tested the hypothesis that enteric bacteria are necessary for the development of spontaneous colitis and immune system activation in IL-10-deficient mice. IL-10-deficient mice were maintained in either SPF conditions or germfree conditions or were populated with bacteria known to cause colitis in other rodent models. IL-10-deficient mice kept in SPF conditions developed colitis in all segments of the colon (cecum and proximal and distal colon). These mice exhibited immune system activation as evidenced by increased expression of CD44 on CD4+ T cells; increased mesenteric lymph node cell numbers; and increased production of immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG1, and IL-12 p40 from colon fragment cultures. Mice populated with bacterial strains, including Bacteroides vulgatus, known to induce colitis in other rodent models had minimal colitis. Germfree IL-10-deficient mice had no evidence of colitis or immune system activation. We conclude therefore that resident enteric bacteria are necessary for the development of spontaneous colitis and immune system activation in IL-10-deficient mice.
Objective To compare the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of five risk scoring systems in the assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.Design International multicentre prospective study.Setting Six large hospitals in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania.Participants 3012 consecutive patients presenting over 12 months with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.Main outcome measures Comparison of pre-endoscopy scores (admission Rockall, AIMS65, and Glasgow Blatchford) and post-endoscopy scores (full Rockall and PNED) for their ability to predict predefined clinical endpoints: a composite endpoint (transfusion, endoscopic treatment, interventional radiology, surgery, or 30 day mortality), endoscopic treatment, 30 day mortality, rebleeding, and length of hospital stay. Optimum score thresholds to identify low risk and high risk patients were determined.Results The Glasgow Blatchford score was best (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.86) at predicting intervention or death compared with the full Rockall score (0.70), PNED score (0.69), admission Rockall score (0.66, and AIMS65 score (0.68) (all P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≤1 was the optimum threshold to predict survival without intervention (sensitivity 98.6%, specificity 34.6%). The Glasgow Blatchford score was better at predicting endoscopic treatment (AUROC 0.75) than the AIMS65 (0.62) and admission Rockall scores (0.61) (both P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≥7 was the optimum threshold to predict endoscopic treatment (sensitivity 80%, specificity 57%). The PNED (AUROC 0.77) and AIMS65 scores (0.77) were best at predicting mortality, with both superior to admission Rockall score (0.72) and Glasgow Blatchford score (0.64; P<0.001). Score thresholds of ≥4 for PNED, ≥2 for AIMS65, ≥4 for admission Rockall, and ≥5 for full Rockall were optimal at predicting death, with sensitivities of 65.8-78.6% and specificities of 65.0-65.3%. No score was helpful at predicting rebleeding or length of stay.Conclusions The Glasgow Blatchford score has high accuracy at predicting need for hospital based intervention or death. Scores of ≤1 appear the optimum threshold for directing patients to outpatient management. AUROCs of scores for the other endpoints are less than 0.80, therefore their clinical utility for these outcomes seems to be limited.Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16235737.
Resident bacteria are incriminated in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated the relative roles of various enteric bacteria populations in the induction and perpetuation of experimental colitis. HLA-B27 transgenic rats received antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, or vancomycin-imipenem) in drinking water or water alone in either prevention or treatment protocols. Mice were treated similarly with metronidazole or vancomycin-imipenem before or after receiving 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Germfree transgenic rats were colonized with specific-pathogen-free enteric bacteria grown overnight either in anaerobic or aerobic atmospheres. Nontransgenic rats colonized with anaerobic bacteria served as negative controls. Although preventive metronidazole significantly attenuated colitis in transgenic rats and DSS-treated mice, it had no therapeutic benefit once colitis was established. Ciprofloxacin also partially prevented but did not treat colitis in B27 transgenic rats. In both animal models vancomycinimipenem most effectively prevented and treated colitis. Germfree transgenic rats reconstituted with enteric bacteria grown under anaerobic conditions had more aggressive colitis than those associated with aerobic bacteria. These results suggest that a subset of resident luminal bacteria induces colitis, but that a complex interaction of commensal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria provides the constant antigenic drive for chronic immune-mediated colonic inflammation.Rapidly growing evidence supports the influence of normal enteric bacteria on the pathogenic process of intestinal inflammation and extraintestinal manifestations in experimental colitis and human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) (40-43). Both spontaneous and induced inflammation in multiple widely diverse rodent models have been associated with commensal luminal bacteria (1, 11-13, 16, 22, 31, 44, 45, 52, 54). The influence of resident bacteria on the induction and perpetuation of spontaneous colitis and gastritis has been thoroughly studied in HLA-B27/␤ 2 -microglobulin transgenic (B27 TG) rats. Colitis, gastritis, and joint inflammation fail to develop in B27 TG rats raised under germfree (sterile) conditions (36, 49). Moreover, when transferred into a specific-pathogenfree (SPF) environment, B27 TG rats universally develop immune-mediated colitis and gastritis within 1 month of bacterial colonization (36).However, not all luminal bacteria have equal abilities to cause inflammation. Antibiotics with narrow specificities, such as metronidazole, which is selectively active against anaerobic bacteria, are effective in Crohn's colitis and ileocolitis (47) and also attenuate chronic experimental intestinal inflammation induced by indomethacin or carageenan in rats and guinea pigs, respectively (32, 54). In addition, overgrowth of predominantly anaerobic bacteria in bypassed small intestinal segments can lead to systemic inflammation. A jejunal self-filling blind loop induces hepatobiliary inflammation rese...
The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 is in addition to some Lactobacilli sp. one of the best-studied probiotic strains. This particular E. coli strain was isolated in 1917 based on its potential to protect from presumably infectious gastroenteritis. Initial therapeutic success was noted in the management of gastrointestinal infectious disorders and infections affecting the urinary tract; the focus shifted later to chronic inflammatory conditions. The unique combination of fitness and survival factors to support intestinal survival, the lack of virulence, and obvious probiotic properties make this microorganism a safe and effective candidate in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Three large clinical trials have assessed the potential in the maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis and equivalence to standard 5-ASA medication was documented. This review aims to discuss important mechanisms of E. coli Nissle 1917 and will review the available literature regarding treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Interleukin (IL)-10-deficient (IL-10-/-) mice develop colitis under specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions and remain disease free if kept sterile (germ free [GF]). We used four different protocols that varied the time-points of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (L. plantarum) relative to colonization with SPF bacteria to determine whether L. plantarum could prevent and treat colitis induced by SPF bacteria in IL-10-/- mice and evaluated the effect of this probiotic organism on mucosal immune activation. Assessment of colitis included blinded histologic scores, measurements of secreted colonic immunoglobulin isotypes, IL-12 (p40 subunit), and interferon (IFN)-gamma production by anti-CD3-stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells. Treating SPF IL-10-/- mice with L. plantarum attenuated previously established colonic inflammation as manifested by decreased mucosal IL-12, IFN-gamma, and immunoglobulin G2a levels. Colonizing GF animals with L. plantarum and SPF flora simultaneously had no protective effects. Gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mice monoassociated with L. plantarum exhibited mild immune system activation but no colitis. Pretreatment of GF mice by colonization with L. plantarum, then exposure to SPF flora and continued probiotic therapy significantly decreased histologic colitis scores. These results demonstrate that L. plantarum can attenuate immune-mediated colitis and suggest a potential therapeutic role for this agent in clinical inflammatory bowel diseases.
Background: Experimental studies have shown that luminal antigens are involved in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Alteration of the intestinal microflora by antibiotic or probiotic therapy may induce and maintain remission. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the effect of oral Lactobacillus GG (L. GG) to induce or maintain medically induced remission.
Infliximab is not superior to placebo in preventing clinical recurrence after CD-related resection. However, infliximab does reduce endoscopic recurrence. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01190839.
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