The new 2012 Zurich Consensus statement is designed to build on the principles outlined in the previous documents and to develop further conceptual understanding of this problem using a formal consensus-based approach. A detailed description of the consensus process is outlined at the end of this document under the Background section. This document is developed primarily for use by physicians and healthcare professionals who are involved in the care of injured athletes, whether at the recreational, elite or professional level.While agreement exists pertaining to principal messages conveyed within this document, the authors acknowledge that the science of concussion is evolving, and therefore management and return to play (RTP) decisions remain in the realm of clinical judgement on an individualised basis. Readers are encouraged to copy and distribute freely the Zurich Consensus document, the Concussion Recognition Tool (CRT), the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool V.3 (SCAT3) and/or the Child SCAT3 card and none are subject to any restrictions, provided they are not altered in any way or converted to a digital format. The authors request that the document and/or the accompanying tools be distributed in their full and complete format.This consensus paper is broken into a number of sections 1. A summary of concussion and its management, with updates from the previous meetings; 2. Background information about the consensus meeting process; 3. A summary of the specific consensus questions discussed at this meeting; 4. The Consensus paper should be read in conjunction with the SCAT3 assessment tool, the Child SCAT3 and the CRT (designed for lay use).
SECTION 1: SPORT CONCUSSION AND ITS MANAGEMENTThe Zurich 2012 document examines the sport concussion and management issues raised in the previous Vienna 2001, Prague 2004 and Zurich 2008 documents and applies the consensus questions from section 3 to these areas.
Definition of concussionA panel discussion regarding the definition of concussion and its separation from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) was held. There was acknowledgement by the Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) that although the terms mTBI and concussion are often used interchangeably in the sporting context and particularly in the US literature, others use the term to refer to different injury constructs. Concussion is the historical term representing lowvelocity injuries that cause brain 'shaking' resulting in clinical symptoms and that are not necessarily related to a pathological injury. Concussion is a subset of TBI and will be the term used in this document. It was also noted that the term commotio cerebri is often used in European and other countries. Minor revisions were made to the definition of concussion, which is defined as follows:Concussion is a brain injury and is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by biomechanical forces. Several common features that incorporate clinical, pathologic and biomechanical injury constructs that may be utilised in def...
HE HIGH INCIDENCE OF CEREbral concussion in contact sports is well documented. 1-8 According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 300000 sport-related concussions occur annually in the United States, 9 and the likelihood of serious sequelae may increase with repeated head injury. 10 Recent publications addressing the negative consequences of recurrent concussion in sports raise questions regarding the potential longterm sequelae associated with this injury, 11-13 and recurrent concussion has forced several collegiate and professional athletes to retire early from their respective sports. Studies from the 1970s report annual concussion incidence rates in high school football to be as high as 15% to 20% of all players in a season, 5,8 while annual incidence estimates of 10% were reported in collegiate football during the late 1980s. 14 More recently, lower in
TUDIES IN BASIC NEUROSCIENCEhave demonstrated that mild traumatic brain injury (concussion) is followed by a complex cascade of ionic, metabolic, and physiological events that can adversely affect cerebral function for several days to weeks. 1,2 Concussive brain injuries trigger a pathophysiological sequence characterized earliest by an indiscriminate release of excitatory amino acids, massive ionic flux, and a brief period of hyperglycolysis, followed by persistent metabolic instability, mitochondrial dysfunction, diminished cerebral glucose metabolism, reduced cerebral blood flow, and altered neurotransmission. These events culminate in axonal injury and neuronal dysfunction.  Clinically, concussion eventuates in neurological deficits, cognitive impairment, and somatic symptoms. 6 Sport-related concussion is now widely recognized as a major public health concern in the United States and worldwide. 3, Despite rule changes and advances in protective equipment, the incidence rate of concussion in contactAuthor Affiliations are listed at the end of this article.
These findings reflect a higher prevalence of concussion in high school football players than previously reported in the literature. The ultimate concern associated with unreported concussion is an athlete's increased risk of cumulative or catastrophic effects from recurrent injury. Future prevention initiatives should focus on education to improve athlete awareness of the signs of concussion and potential risks of unreported injury.
Our findings suggest a possible link between recurrent sport-related concussion and increased risk of clinical depression. The findings emphasize the importance of understanding potential neurological consequences of recurrent concussion.
This paper presents the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (SCAT5), which is the most recent revision of a sport concussion evaluation tool for use by healthcare professionals in the acute evaluation of suspected concussion. The revision of the SCAT3 (first published in 2013) culminated in the SCAT5. The revision was based on a systematic review and synthesis of current research, public input and expert panel review as part of the 5th International Consensus Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Berlin in 2016. The SCAT5 is intended for use in those who are 13 years of age or older. The Child SCAT5 is a tool for those aged 5-12 years, which is discussed elsewhere.
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