Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors influence the development of alcohol dependence (AD). Recent studies have shown that DNA methylation markers in peripheral blood may serve as risk markers for AD. Yet a genome-wide epigenomic approach investigating the role of DNA methylation in AD has yet to be performed. We conducted a population-based, case-control study of genome-wide DNA methylation to determine if alterations in gene-specific methylation were associated with AD in a Chinese population. Using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation27 BeadChip, we assessed gene-specific methylation in over 27 000 CpG sites from DNA isolated from lymphocytes in 63 male AD in-patients and 65 male healthy controls. Using a multi-factorial statistical model, we observed differential methylation between cases and controls at multiple CpG sites with the majority of the methylated CpG sites being hypomethylated. Analyses with the online gene set analysis toolkit WebGestalt revealed that the genes of interest were enriched in multiple biological processes involved in AD development. Gene Ontology function annotation showed that stress, immune response and signal transduction were highly associated with AD. Further analysis by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes revealed associations with multiple pathways involved in metabolism through cytochrome P450, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and calcium signaling. Associations with canonical pathways previously shown to be involved in AD were also observed, such as dehydrogenases 1A (ADH1A), ADH7, aldehyde dehydrogenases 3B2 (ALDH3B2) and cytochrome P450 2A13. We present evidence that alterations in DNA methylation may be associated with AD, which is consistent with epigenetic theory.
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is a predictive biomarker of the success of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but its role as a prognostic marker for early stage resectable NSCLC remains unclear. Here, we studied PD-L1 expression and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in surgically resectable NSCLC and correlate the finding with clinicopathological features and patient outcomes. Total of 170 archival samples of resectable NSCLC were probed for PD-L1 expression using the clone 22C3 pharmDx kit. The PD-L1 expression was determined by the Tumor Proportion Score (TPS) and classified into TPS <1%, TPS 1 to 49% and TPS ≥50%. The scoring of TILs was from hematoxylin & eosin stained tissue sections using a system for standardized evaluation of TILs in breast cancer. PD-L1 expression was compared with clinical pathological characteristics and survival outcome. Expression of PD-L1 scores of TPS ≥50%, TPS 1 to 49% and TPS <1% were observed in 10.6%, 24.7% and 64.7% of the 170 archival samples, respectively. Positive PD-L1 expression was significantly higher in patients with squamous carcinoma, in those with higher TNM stage and with the presence of TILs. Neither the PD-L1 expression, TIL status, nor their combination was an independent prognosis biomarker of survival when the data was subjected to either univariate or multivariate analysis. The incidence of PDL1 expression appears to be lower in patient with early stage resectable lung cancer. PD-L1 expression and TILs are not prognostic indicators of survival outcome in this population.
In this study we investigated the biological role and mechanism of miR-198 in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). MiR-198 expression was shown to exhibit a strongly negative correlation with lymph node invasion, distant metastasis and patient survival in examinations of colorectal cancer tissues and paired normal colorectal mucosa tissues. fucosyl transferase 8 (FUT8) was identified as a potential target of miR-198 in bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assays. Overexpression of miR-198 in CRC cell lines decreased FUT8 levels as shown by immunofluorescence analysis, and inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. These anti-tumor phenotypes were rescued by reconstitution of FUT8 expression. Furthermore, miR-198 was shown to target the 3′UTR of FUT8 directly to downregulate FUT8 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. In vivo, restoration of miR-198 significantly inhibited xenograft growth and invasion of CRC tumors in nude mice. Therefore, it could be concluded that miR-198 suppresses the proliferation and invasion of CRC by directly targeting FUT8.
Background: Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the lung is a heterogeneous disease that is composed of both adenocarcinoma components (ACC) and squamous cell carcinoma components (SCCC). Their genomic profile, genetic origin, and clinical management remain controversial. Patients and methods: Resected ASC and metastatic tumor in regional lymph nodes (LNs) were collected. The ACC and SCCC were separated by microdissection of primary tumor. The 1021 cancer-related genes were evaluated by nextgeneration sequencing independently in ACC and SCCC and LNs. Shared and private alterations in the two components were investigated. In addition, genomic profiles of independent cohorts of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas were examined for comparison. We have also carried out a retrospective study of ASCs with known EGFR mutation status from 11 hospitals in China for their clinical outcomes. Results: The most frequent alterations in 28 surgically resected ASCs include EGFR (79%), TP53 (68%), MAP3K1 (14%) mutations, EGFR amplifications (32%), and MDM2 amplifications (18%). Twenty-seven patients (96%) had shared variations between ACC and SCCC, and pure SCCC metastases were not found in metastatic LNs among these patients. Only one patient with geographically separated ACC and SCCC had no shared mutations. Inter-component heterogeneity was a common genetic event of ACC and SCCC. The genomic profile of ASC was similar to that of 170 adenocarcinomas, but different from that of 62 squamous cell carcinomas. The incidence of EGFR mutations in the retrospective analysis of 517 ASCs was 51.8%. Among the 129 EGFR-positive patients who received EGFR-TKIs, the objective response rate was 56.6% and the median progression-free survival was 10.1 months (95% confidence interval: 9.0e11.2). Conclusions: The ACC and SCCC share a monoclonal origin, a majority with genetically inter-component heterogeneity. ASC may represent a subtype of adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutation being the most common genomic anomaly and sharing similar efficacy to EGFR TKI.
PD-L1 expression in TMAs correlates moderately well with that in the corresponding surgical specimens, indicating that evaluating PD-L1 expression in diagnostic biopsy specimens could be misleading in defining sensitivity to pembrolizumab treatment yet may be reliable as a way to exclude patients with a PD-L1 TPS less than 50% from first-line pembrolizumab treatment.
Introduction: Alcohol dependence is a complex disease caused by a confluence of environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol dependence. Methods: To determine if alterations in gene-specific methylation were associated with alcohol dependence, a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from alcohol-dependent patients and siblings without alcohol dependence as controls. The Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip was used and gene-specific methylation of DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was assessed. Genes ALDH1L2, GAD1, DBH and GABRP were selected to validate beadchip results by pyrosequencing. Results: Compared to normal controls, 865 hypomethylated and 716 hypermethylated CG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA in alcohol-dependent patients were identified. The most hypomethylated CG site is located in the promoter of SSTR4 (somatostatin receptor 4) and the most hypermethylated CG site is GABRP (gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor). The results from beadchip analysis were consistent with that of pyrosequencing. Discussion: DNA methylation might be associated with alcohol dependence. Genes SSTR4, ALDH1L2, GAD1, DBH and GABRP may participate in the biological process of alcohol dependence.
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