The hydrodeoxygenation of a model compound of lignin-derived bio-oil, guaiacol, which can be obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, has attracted considerable research attention because of its huge potential as a substitute for conventional fuels. In this study, platinum-loaded HY zeolites (Pt/HY) with different Si/Al molar ratios were used as catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol, anisole, veratrole, and phenol to a range of hydrocarbons, such as cyclohexane. The cyclohexane (major product) yield increased with increasing number of acid sites. To produce bio-oil with the maximum level of cyclohexane and alkylated cyclohexanes, which would be suitable as a substitute for conventional transportation fuels, the Si/Al molar ratio should be optimized to balance the Pt particle-induced hydrogenation with acid site-induced methyl group transfer. The fuel properties of real bio-oil derived from the fast pyrolysis of cork oak was improved using the Pt/HY catalyst.
Massive blooms of blue-green algae in reservoirs produce the musty-earthy taste and odor, which are caused by compounds such as 2-MIB and geosmin. 2-MIB and geosmin are rarely removed by conventional water treatment. Their presence in the drinking water, even at low levels (ng/L), can be detected and it creates consumer complaints. So those concentrations have to be controlled as low as possible in the drinking water. The removals by oxidation (O3, Cl2, ClO2) and adsorption (PAC, filter/adsorber) were studied at laboratory and pilot plant (50 m3/d) to select suitable 2-MIB and geosmin treatment processes. The following conclusions were derived from the study. Both of the threshold odor levels for 2-MIB and geosmin appeared to be 30 ng/L as a consequence of a lab test. For any given PAC dosage in a jar-test, removal efficiencies of 2-MIB and geosmin were increased in proportion to PAC dosage and were independent of their initial concentration in raw water for the tested PAC dosages. In comparison of geosmin with 2-MIB, the adsorption efficiency of geosmin by PAC was superior to that of 2-MIB. The required PAC dosages to control below the threshold odor level were 30 mg/L for geosmin and 50 mg/L for 2-MIB at 100 ng/L of initial concentration. Removal efficiencies of odor materials by Cl2, ClO2, and O3 were very weak under the limited dosage (1.5 mg/L), however increased ozone dosage (3.8 mg O3/L) showed high removal efficiency (84.8% for 2-MIB) at contact time 6.4 minutes. According to the initial concentrations of 2-MIB and geosmin, their removal efficiencies by filter/adsorber differed from 25.7% to 88.4%. For all those, however, remaining concentrations of target materials in finished waters were maintained below 30 ng/L. The longer run-time given for the filter/adsorber, the higher the effluent concentration generated. So it is necessary that the run-time of the filter/adsorber be decreased, when 2-MIB or geosmin occurs in raw water.
Gibbs oscillation can show up near flow regions with strong temperature gradients in the numerical simulation of nonhydrostatic (NH) mesoscale atmospheric flows when using the highorder discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. We propose to incorporate localized Laplacian artificial viscosity in the DG framework to suppress the spurious oscillation in the vicinity of sharp thermal fronts, while not contaminating the smooth flow features elsewhere. The resulting numerical formulation is then validated on several benchmark test cases, including a shock discontinuity problem with the 1D Burger's equation, and two test cases for the compressible Euler equations: a rising thermal bubble and density current. The results indicate that the proposed DG-localized Laplacian artificial viscosity method works robustly with a wide range of grid sizes and polynomial orders.
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