The aim of this descriptive exploratory study is to record the temporal spatial parameters and 5 metabolic energy expenditure during walking of individuals with amputation, walking with 6 advanced prostheses and following completion of comprehensive rehabilitation, to able-7 bodied controls. Main Outcomes and Measures 25Temporal spatial and metabolic energy expenditure data were captured during walking on 26 level ground at self-selected speed. 28 Results 29The individuals with amputation were all male, with a mean age 29 years (SD = 4) and mean
BackgroundObjective assessment methods to monitor residual limb volume following lower-limb amputation are required to enhance practitioner-led prosthetic fitting. Computer aided systems, including 3D scanners, present numerous advantages and the recent Artec Eva scanner, based on laser free technology, could potentially be an effective solution for monitoring residual limb volumes.PurposeThe aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Artec Eva scanner (practical measurement) against a high precision laser 3D scanner (criterion measurement) for the determination of residual limb model shape and volume.MethodsThree observers completed three repeat assessments of ten residual limb models, using both the scanners. Validity of the Artec Eva scanner was assessed (mean percentage error <2%) and Bland-Altman statistics were adopted to assess the agreement between the two scanners. Intra and inter-rater reliability (repeatability coefficient <5%) of the Artec Eva scanner was calculated for measuring indices of residual limb model volume and shape (i.e. residual limb cross sectional areas and perimeters).ResultsResidual limb model volumes ranged from 885 to 4399 ml. Mean percentage error of the Artec Eva scanner (validity) was 1.4% of the criterion volumes. Correlation coefficients between the Artec Eva and the Romer determined variables were higher than 0.9. Volume intra-rater and inter-rater reliability coefficients were 0.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Shape percentage maximal error was 2% at the distal end of the residual limb, with intra-rater reliability coefficients presenting the lowest errors (0.2%), both for cross sectional areas and perimeters of the residual limb models.ConclusionThe Artec Eva scanner is a valid and reliable method for assessing residual limb model shapes and volumes. While the method needs to be tested on human residual limbs and the results compared with the current system used in clinical practice, it has the potential to quantify shape and volume fluctuations with greater resolution.
Abstract-Achieving the required functionality of a transtibial prosthesis during the stance phase of gait (e.g., shock absorption, close to normal roll-over characteristics, and smooth transition into swing) depends on the Amputee Independent Prosthesis Properties (AIPPs), defined here as the mechanical properties of the prosthesis that directly influence the performance of the amputee. Accordingly, if research studies are to advance the design of prostheses to achieve improved user performance, AIPPs must be a primary consideration. However, the majority of reported studies can be categorized as either human performance testing of commercial prosthetic components or AIPP characterization; only in a few notable cases have studies combined these two approaches. Moreover, very little consistency exists in the current methods used for AIPP characterization, thus making comparisons between the results of such studies very difficult. This article introduces a framework for studying prosthesis design, which includes AIPP characterization, human performance and/or gait simulation studies, and detailed design. This framework provides a structure for reviewing previous approaches to AIPP characterization, discussing both their merits and shortcomings and their use in previous experimental and simulation studies. For the purposes of this review, stance phase AIPP models have been categorized as either lumped parameter or roll-over shape based.
Abstract-The ability to control balance during walking is a critical precondition for minimizing fall risk, but this ability is compromised in persons with lower-limb absence because of reduced sensory feedback mechanisms and inability to actively modulate prosthesis mechanical function. Consequently, these individuals are at increased fall risk compared with nondisabled individuals. A number of gait parameters, including symmetry and temporal variability in step/stride characteristics, have been used as estimates of gait stability and fall risk. This study investigated the effect of prosthetic ankle rotational stiffness on gait parameters related to walking stability of transtibial prosthesis users. Five men walked with an experimental prosthesis that allowed for independent modulation of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion stiffness. Two levels of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion stiffness were tested during level, uphill, and downhill walking. The results demonstrate that low plantar flexion stiffness reduced time to foot-flat, which was associated with increased perceived stability, while low dorsiflexion stiffness demonstrated trends in temporal-spatial parameters that are associated with improved gait stability (reduced variability and asymmetry). Prosthesis design and prescription for low rotational stiffness may enhance gait safety for transtibial prosthesis users at risk of unsteadiness and falls.
Amputees are known to walk with greater metabolic cost than able-bodied individuals and establishing predictors of metabolic cost from kinematic measures, such as centre of mass (CoM) motion, during walking are important from a rehabilitative perspective, as they can provide quantifiable measures to target during gait rehabilitation in amputees. While it is known that vertical CoM motion poorly predicts metabolic cost, CoM motion in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior directions have not been investigated in the context of gait efficiency in the amputee population. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between CoM motion in all three directions of motion, base of support and walking speed, and the metabolic cost of walking in both able-bodied individuals and different levels of lower limb amputee. 37 individuals were recruited to form groups of controls, unilateral above- and below-knee, and bilateral above-knee amputees respectively. Full-body optical motion and oxygen consumption data were collected during walking at a self-selected speed. CoM position was taken as the mass-weighted average of all body segments and compared to each individual's net non-dimensional metabolic cost. Base of support and ML CoM displacement were the strongest correlates to metabolic cost and the positive correlations suggest increased ML CoM displacement or Base of support will reduce walking efficiency. Rehabilitation protocols which indirectly reduce these indicators, rather than vertical CoM displacement will likely show improvements in amputee walking efficiency.
Abstract-Improved technology allows for more accurate gait analysis to increase awareness of nonoptimized prosthetic gait patterns and for the manufacture of sophisticated prosthetic components to improve nonoptimized gait patterns. However, prescriptions are often based on intuition rather than rigorous research findings for evidence-based practice. The number of studies found in the literature that are based on prosthetic research regarding transverse rotation and longitudinal translation is small when compared to topics regarding other types of movements. Some design criteria for prosthetic components described in those studies that permit transverse rotation and longitudinal translation can be found in current designs. However, little research has been conducted to establish their effectiveness on the gait parameters and residual limb. This literature review is an investigation into these motions between the socket and the prosthetic foot, with particular reference to gait characteristics and prosthetic design criteria.
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